Parenting Classes Through “Triple P”

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TRIPLE P IN A NUTSHELL

The Triple P – Positive Parenting Program ® is a parenting and family support system designed to prevent – as well as treat – behavioral and emotional problems in children and teenagers. It aims to prevent problems in the family, school, and community before they arise and to create family environments that encourage children to realize their potential.

Triple P draws on social learning, cognitive behavioral and developmental theory as well as research into risk factors associated with the development of social and behavioral problems in children. It aims to equip parents with the skills and confidence they need to be self-sufficient and to be able to manage family issues without ongoing support.

 

And while it is almost universally successful in improving behavioral problems, more than half of Triple P’s 17 parenting strategies focus on developing positive relationships, attitudes, and conduct.

 

Triple P is delivered to parents of children up to 12 years, with Teen Triple P for parents of 12 to 16-year-olds. There are also specialist programs – for parents of children with a disability (Stepping Stones), for parents going through separation or divorce (Family Transitions), for parents of children who are overweight (Lifestyle) and for Indigenous parents (Indigenous). Other specialist programs are being trialed or are in development.

BENEFITS OF TRIPLE P

Triple P is unlike any other parenting program in the world, with benefits both clinical and practical.

Flexible delivery

Triple P’s flexibility sets it apart from many other parenting interventions. Triple P has flexibility in:

Age range and special circumstance

Triple P can cater to an entire population — for children from birth to 16 years. There are also specialist programs – including programs for parents of children with a disability; parents of children with health or weight concerns; parents going through divorce or separation; and for Indigenous families.

Intensity of program

Triple P’s distinctive multi-level system is the only one of its kind, offering a suite of programs of increasing intensity, each catering to a different level of family need or dysfunction, from “light-touch” parenting help to highly targeted interventions for at-risk families.

How it’s delivered

Just as the type of programs within the Triple P system differ, so do the settings in which the programs are delivered – personal consultations, group courses, larger public seminars and online and other self-help interventions are all available.

Who can be trained to deliver

Practitioners come from a wide range of professions and disciplines and include family support workers, doctors, nurses, psychologists, counselors, teachers, teacher’s aides, police officers, social workers, child safety officers and clergy.

Evidence based

Triple P is the most extensively researched parenting program in the world. Developed by clinical psychologist Professor Matt Sanders and his colleagues at Australia’s University of Queensland, Triple P is backed by more than 35 years’ ongoing research, conducted by academic institutions in the U.S., the U.K., Canada, the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Iran, Hong Kong, Japan, Turkey, New Zealand and Australia.

Population approach

Triple P has been designed as a population-based health approach to parenting, typically implemented by jurisdictions, government bodies or NGOs (non-government organizations) across regions or countries. The aim is to reach as many people as possible to have the greatest preventative impact on a community. The Triple P system can go to scale simply and cost efficiently. It has been shown to work with many different cultures and ethnicities.

Comprehensive resources

All Triple P interventions are supported with comprehensive, professionally produced resources for both practitioners and parents. The resources have all been clinically trialled and tested. The parent resources have been translated, variously, from English into 21 languages.

Organizational support

Triple P’s dissemination experts around the world have experience assisting all levels of government and non-government organizations and are available to advise through all stages of a Triple P rollout – from planning and training to delivery, evaluation and beyond. Triple P uses an Implementation Framework to help support the success and sustainability of Triple P.

Communications strategy

An integrated communications strategy, which helps destigmatize parenting support and reaches parents via a range of communications materials, puts parenting on the public agenda. It creates an awareness and acceptance of parenting support in general – and Triple P specifically.

Evaluation measures

The success of Triple P is easily monitored on both a personal level and across a population. Triple P provides tools for practitioners to measure “before” and “after” results with parents, allowing them to demonstrate Triple P’s effectiveness to the parents they work with and also to their own managers. computerized scoring applications can also be adapted to collate results across a region to show effects community-wide or within a target group.

Cost effective

Triple P’s system works to prevent overservicing and wastage, with its range of programs able to cater to the diversity of parents’ needs – from light-touch to intense intervention. It’s also a program that promotes self-regulation and self-sufficiency, as Triple P gives parents the skills they need to become problem solvers and confidently manage their issues independently, rather than rely on the ongoing support of a practitioner.

 

On a broader scale, as an early intervention strategy, Triple P has been shown to reduce costs associated with conduct disorder, child abuse and out-of-home placement, delivering significant benefits when compared to the cost of the program. Read more about Triple P’s cost efficiency.

LOCAL CONTACTS

If you represent an agency, organization, jurisdiction or government and would like to discuss implementing Triple P in your region, or inquire about training your staff to deliver Triple P to parents, please contact:

U.S.A.

Triple P America Inc.
1201 Lincoln St, Suite 201
Columbia, SC, 29201, USA
contact.us@triplep.net
+1-803-451 2278

Australia

Triple P International Pty Ltd
11 Market Street North
Indooroopilly, QLD 4068, AU
contact@triplep.net
+61-7-3236 1212

Canada

Triple P Parenting Canada Inc.
contact.canada@triplep.net
+1-647-822-8772

Germany

Triple P Deutschland
info@triplep.de
+49-0251-1621248

Latin America

Triple P Latin America
francisca@triplep.net
+56-97-879 4832

New Zealand

Triple P New Zealand Limited
infonz@triplep.net
+64-9-579 1794

United Kingdom

Triple P UK Limited
contact@triplep.uk.net
+44-207-987 2944

All other countries

Triple P International Pty Ltd
contact@triplep.net
+61-7-3236 1212

Links

Triple P Online – Overview PDF

YouTube Triple P – Positive Parenting Program

Santa Cruz County Triple P Website

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Promoting Disability Awareness on Campus

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People with disabilities are not
their diagnoses or disabilities;
they are people, first.

 
Kathie Snow
Disability is Natural

Articles

Creating Positive School Experiences for Students with Disabilities By Amy Milsom

How to Talk to Kids About Disabilities

Prioritizing Agency for Students With Disabilities When students with disabilities develop self-advocacy and self-determination, they can engage more effectively in their education. By Ace Parsi

Promoting Positive Social Interactions in an Inclusion Setting for Students with Learning Disabilities from the National Association of Special Education Teachers

Tips for Talking to Your Child About Learning Disabilities

Understanding and Responding to Children’s Needs in Inclusive Classrooms A Guide for Teachers by UNESCO

Helping Students Understand and Accept Their Learning Disabilities: The Demystification Conference By Mia Wernig Elfrink

BULLYING AND DISABILITY: An Overview of the Research Literature by Fred Pampel, PhD

13 Tips on How to Talk to Children About Diversity and Difference

Changing How We Talk About Disabilities- GREAT Quick reference

Attitudes and Language – From Disability is Natural

Tools

Disability Awareness Activity Packet

Disability Lesson Plans from Learning to Give

Promoting Disability Awareness and Acceptance In Childhood By Anne Borys

How to Explain Disability to a Child

Content Provided by: United Cerebral Palsy of Greater Indiana

“Whether you’re explaining a disability to a child who has one or to a non-disabled child, the following key concepts should be kept in mind” advises Ava L. Siegler, Ph.D. in Child Magazine.

Compassion: Show a child you fully understand what a hurtful thing a disability can be.

Communication: Explain as much as you possibly can about the disability so a child does not become frightened by the unknown.

Comprehension: Make sure a child understands that the disability is never the child’s fault.

Competence: Convey the sense that even though a disability is very hard to deal with, a child with a disability will make progress and learn to do new things.

Suggested phrases to use when explaining a disability to a child:

Age of the Child When speaking to a child with a disability When speaking to a child without a disability
2 to 4 We don’t know why, but sometimes children are born without everything their bodies need, and that’s what happened to you. That means you’re going to have to work harder and we’re going to work hard to help you. Most children like you are born with everything they need, but sometimes children are born without everything they need. Sometimes they need crutches or wheelchairs or braces to help them do what you do naturally.”
5 to 8 “It’s really tough when your body can’t do everything you want it to do. It’s not fair that you have to work so hard to make your body do what you want. But everyone has some activities that are easy for them, and some that require more effort. You have this problem, but you’re lucky to have lots of talents, too.” “Kids are all different, and they have different strengths as well as things that are harder for them. Some things that are easy for you to do are very difficult for other children to do. It takes a lot of courage for kids with physical disabilities to keep trying and working at it.”
9 to 12 It’s a bad break for you to be born with a disability that makes things harder. But remember your abilities, too and work to strengthen them. It’s natural sometimes to feel angry but try not to give up. Whenever you see someone with a disability, remember that even though they are having a hard time, they’re still kids who need friends and understanding.

Source

“Turn and Talks” in the Classroom Can Yield Many Positive Outcomes For Your Students

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Procedures

Turn and Talk – Procedures and Routines

How to Use

1. Question

Pose a question or prompt for students to discuss and tell them how much time they will have. A one-to-two minute discussion is most productive.

2. Turn

Have students turn to a specific partner. Pair students using Eyeball Partners, Shoulder Partners, or Clock Partners (see variations below). Partner assignments should be set up beforehand so that students can quickly and easily pair up.

3. Talk

Set a timer for the allotted time, and have students begin discussing the assigned question or prompt. When time is up, ask partners to share out thoughts and ideas from their discussion.

When to Use

Use Turn and Talk at any time during a lesson to encourage accountable talk:

  • As a warm-up activity to discuss previous lesson or homework assignment
  • After five to seven minutes of oral or written input, to help student process what they have just heard or read
  • During class discussions as a way for students to discuss ideas before sharing them with the class
  • As a closing activity so that students can review what was learned in the lesson
  • As a clarification tool for a complex problem or new guiding question posed by the teacher

Variations

Eyeball Partners

When students are seated at tables or in groups, “eyeball partners” are students who are facing in front of each other.

Shoulder Partners

When students are seated at tables or in groups, “shoulder partners” are students who are seated next to each other. This may also be done when students are seated in rows.

Clock Partners

Using a clock template, have students “make appointments” with four other classmates, one for 12 o’clock, one for 3 o’clock, one for 6 o’clock, and one for 9 o’clock. Partners may not be repeated. When ready to use partners, simply say “Work with your [choose one of the times] partner.” In Primary Grades PK-1, partners should be assigned by the teacher.

Source

Articles

Turn and Talk: One Powerful Practice So Many Uses by Lucy West & Antonia Cameron

6 Easy Ways to Improve Turn & Talk for Student Language Development

Turn and Talk from HAMERAY PUBLISHING

Why Talk Is Important in Classrooms- from Content-Area Conversations by Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey, and Carol Rothenberg

Structured Student Talk  From El Achieve

Turn and Talk Tips and Examples

Keep Your Students Engaged with “Turn and Talk” by RACHEL LYNETTE

I'm sure that by now in your teaching career, you've heard of Think, Pair, Share. But have you heard of Turn and Talk? This is very similar to Think, Pair, Share, but its foundation is in brain-based research. Sally of Elementary Matters shares all about Turn and Talk in this guest post and shares a FREE poster that you can hang up in your classroom. Click through to read more and download the freebie!

TURN AND TALK PROMPTS
Please note that the list below is not meant to be a comprehensive list of Turn and Talk prompts, but simply a starter guide to get you thinking about how you can use this tool in your classroom.
READING
1. Which character did you identify most with in the book and why?
2. What do you predict will happen in the next chapter?
3. What did you visualize when you read this chapter?
4. Describe a connection you made while reading this piece. It can be a text-to-text, text-to-self, or text-to-world connection.
5. What is something the main character did that surprised you?
6. Choose a word that was unfamiliar to you when you first read this book. Explain to your partner how you determined the meaning of the word.
7. What do you think is the theme of the story?
8. Do you agree with the character’s actions? Why or why not?
9. After reading this book, what is one question you would want to ask the author?
10. What do you think the author’s purpose was for writing this story?

MATH
1. Explain the strategy you used to solve this problem, and why you chose it.
2. Share three ways we use math in our everyday lives.
3. Analyze this problem and see if you can find the error the student made while solving it. Discuss with your partner how you would correct the error.
4. Do you agree or disagree with how I just solved this problem? Defend your answer.
5. What would be the next step?
6. Choose one math tool / manipulative we have used this year, and explain to your partner what it can be used for.
7. Which image / shape / pattern does not belong in this set of 4? Explain your thinking.
8. What information do you still need in order to solve this problem?
9. I can check my answer by……
10. I know my answer is reasonable because…
http://www.APLearning.com

SCIENCE
1. The physical properties of ___________ and ____________ are similar because ___________________.
2. What do you predict will happen as we complete this investigation?
3. Choose one science safety tool and explain to your partner how to use it and why it is important.
4. Explain what you observed during the experiment, and why you think this happened.
5. Explain the process of how matter can change from one state to another.
6. Choose a plant or animal we have studied, and explain how it is adapted to thrive in its particular environment.
7. Take turns describing to each other the stages of the ___________’s life cycle.
8. A change we could make to our design is _______________. I think this will impact it by __________________.
9. Choose one environmental change, and explain to your partner how it impacts the environment.
10. How can we represent the data we have collected from this experiment?

SOCIAL STUDIES
1. Which invention do you think had the greatest impact on our society and why?
2. Do you think it is important to learn about the history of our country? Defend your answer.
3. Think about the two cultures we have studied. Describe one way in which they are similar and one way in which they are different.
4. Describe how ________________ had an impact on society.
5. How can you determine if an online resource is valid?
6. Choose an important feature of a map or globe and explain its significance.
7. Explain how supply and demand effect the price of a good or service.
8. Find an example of one non-fiction text feature in your history textbook, show it to your partner, and explain how it helps you as a reader.
9. What do you think is the most important reason for a group of people to immigrate to another country?
10. Of the 10 amendments in the Bill of Rights, which do you think is most important? Defend your answer.

Source

Anchor Charts

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Building a Relationship with Students to Increase Learning in the Classroom

Articles

5 Tips for Better Relationships With Your Students – NEA

Featured article: Unconditional Positive Regard and Effective School Discipline By Dr. Eric Rossen

The Teacher as Warm Demander by Elizabeth Bondy and Dorene D. Ross

Educator’s Guide to Preventing and Solving Discipline Problems by Mark Boynton and Christine Boynton

The Power of Positive Regard by Jeffrey Benson

Building Positive Teacher-Child Relationships– CSEFEL

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Unconditional Positive Regard 

Carl Rogers described unconditional positive regard (UPR) as love and acceptance that are not dependent upon any particular behaviors. He often used the term “prizing” as shorthand for this feature of a relationship. According to Rogers, prizing is particularly important in the parent-child relationship.

Unconditional Positive Regard 

Carl Rogers described unconditional positive regard (UPR) as love and acceptance that are not dependent upon any particular behaviors. He often used the term “prizing” as shorthand for this feature of a relationship. According to Rogers, prizing is particularly important in the parent-child relationship. Rogers argued that children who are prized by their parents experience a greater sense of congruence, have a better chance to self-actualize, and have are more likely to become fully functioning people than those whose parents raise them under “conditions of worth.”

Unconditional positive regard is also a crucial component of Rogers’ approach to psychotherapy. In fact, along with empathy and genuineness, Rogers asserted that UPR was one of the necessary and sufficient elements for positive psychotherapeutic change. When Rogers described UPR as “necessary,” he communicated that an unconditionally accepting and warm relationship between therapist and client is a prerequisite for therapy to be effective. This assertion is not particularly shocking; most individuals seeing a therapist would probably expect the therapist to have this type of nonjudgmental attitude, and would also probably expect therapy to progress poorly if the therapist was in fact judgmental or conditionally disapproving. When Rogers described UPR as “sufficient,” however, he made a bolder statement. The term “sufficient” suggests that if a therapist provides UPR, along with empathy and genuineness, to a client, the client will improve. No additional techniques or strategies are needed. The therapist need not analyze any dreams, change any thought patterns, punish or reward any behaviors, or offer any interpretations. Instead, in the context of this humanistic therapy relationship, the client will heal himself or herself by growing in a self-actualizing direction, thereby achieving greater congruence. This “necessary and sufficient” claim holds true, according to Rogers, regardless of the diagnosis or severity of the client’s problem.

In addition to the parent-child and therapist-client relationship, Rogers also considered the value of UPR in other relationships and situations. For example, he spent significant time and energy discussing the role that UPR might play in education, and in the teacher-student relationship in particular. Rogers criticized the mainstream American educational system as overly conditional. He believed that educators too often used the threat of poor grades to motivate students, and that students felt prized only when they performed up to educators’ standards (as measured by grades on exams, papers, etc.). He further believed that students may emerge from school having learned some essential academic skills, but also having learned that they are not trustworthy, that they lack internal motivation toward learning, and that only the aspects of themselves that meet particular academic criteria are worthy.

Rogers strongly recommended that teachers and administrators take a more humanistic and less conditional approach to education. He argued that UPR in schools would communicate to children that they are worthy no matter what; as a result, their sense of congruence and their tendency toward self-actualization would remain intact. Students, according to Rogers, should be trusted to a greater extent to follow their own interests and set to their own academic goals. Rather than threatening students to study for exams and write papers in which they have little interest, prize them wholly and allow them greater freedom to choose that which they want to pursue. Advocates of Rogers’ humanistic approach to education argue that it would enhance students’ self-worth, which in turn may preclude many of the psychological and social problems that children encounter. Critics of Rogers’ humanistic approach to education argue that without conditions of worth based on academic achievement, students would have no provocation to learn, and would demonstrate lethargy rather than self-motivation.

Andrew M. Pomerantz, Ph. D.

 

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Preparing for Halloween with Children on the Autism Spectrum

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4 Steps to Prepare Your Child with Autism for Halloween

By – We Rock the Spectrum Kid’s Gym in Tarzana, CA

Halloween is a family-friendly holiday that’s especially exciting for younger children. It’s a time once a year where they can dress up in rockin’ costumes, stay out late, explore their neighborhood, and — most importantly — make childhood memories that will last them a lifetime. If your child has autism, there’s no reason he or she can’t participate in this special time as well! Children with autism are very capable, but often need more preparation than a neuro-typical child. That’s why we created a list of steps to help prepare your child with autism for Halloween festivities.

1) Visualize

Show Them Photos and Videos

As any parent knows, the best way to reduce the anxiety and nerves that come from the unknown is to help your child visualize what’s going to happen before it happens. On Halloween night, the neighborhood and world as your child knows it seemingly changes. Families will be roaming the streets wearing different costumes, running from door to door asking for candy. Show your child what it’s going to look like with photos and videos of previous Halloweens. YouTube is filled with videos of parents filming their children’s first trick-or-treating experience. Preview the videos to make sure they’re safe, but use these to show your child what it will be like. If you have your own home videos of the night, that’s all the better!

Preview the Route

Take your child on a walk around the neighborhood to get used to it. If you have a specific route planned out for the night, walk them through it and let them know what houses they’ll be going to, and which ones they won’t. Have them examine the Halloween decorations to make sure they aren’t surprised or scared the night of.

2) Explain

Talk Them Through the Social Cues

After you’ve shown your child what’s going to happen on Halloween, make sure you explain it as well. Talk them through the actions they’ll take, especially the social cues they’re expected to do. Explain how to knock on doors, ask for candy, and help them come up with good replies for when someone asks them a question about their costume or candy preference.

Research to Answer Any Questions

Kids are curious! Be sure to do a little research of your own so that when your child begins asking you a thousand questions about Halloween — how it started, why you say “Trick-or-Treat”, what’s with the costumes, etc. — so that you can provide not only the answers, but the assurance that all is going to be okay.

3) Practice

Dress Them in Their Costumes Before

After you’ve found the costume that your child wants (a process that deserves a step-by-step guide itself!), don’t wait until show time to practice putting it on. Children with Autism, especially children with Sensory-Processing Disorder, are very particular about their clothing choices and comfort. If your child has a particular outfit they are most comfortable wearing, consider reducing stress by complimenting the outfit with a cape or mask so they can still have the comfort of their favorite clothes. If your child is willing to try a costume, then plan on having them wear it a few times before Halloween until they can put it on relatively stress-free.

Walk Them Through a Test-Run

Before the big day, take everything you’ve been working on and put it into practice. Have them get into their costumes, go over their social cues with you along with any last questions they have, and then take them on their Halloween route! If you can, even talk with neighbors who would be willing to participate in this practice with you. Have your child knock on you neighbors door and go through the motions of trick-or-treating, but without the actual tricks or treats (save the excitement for the actual day as a reward!).

4) Perform

Finally, the big day is here! It’s Halloween and it’s time to get your child dressed up and ready to explore the neighborhood with other children and friends. Keep in mind that any success, no matter how small, is still a success and a step in the right direction. Maybe your child only makes it to three houses — but that doesn’t mean they won’t make it to three more next year! Be positive and happy for any progress you can make, and remember that this holiday is supposed to be about family fun and good memories, so be sure to know your child’s limits and compromise if you must. It will only ensure a happier time for the both of you.

Source

Articles

Halloween for children with Autism by Bethany Sciortino

Trick Or Treat! By Lisa Ackerman

Tips for Preparing Your Child with Autism for Halloween

Halloween Tips for Parents with Children on the Autism Spectrum May Institute

Social Stories

16 Printable Halloween Social Stories

  1. What to expect on Halloween by Positively Autism
  2. Halloween Tips & Social Story by Therapics
  3. Halloween Social Story by Indiana Institute on Disability and Community
  4. Halloween Party by Teachers Pay Teachers
  5. Halloween Party 2 by Teachers PayTeachers
  6. Carving a Pumpkin by SETBC
  7. Trick or Treat, Wearing a Costume by Creating and Teaching
  8. Trick or TreatCards by Teachers Pay Teachers
  9. Trick or Treat 1 by TeachersPay Teachers
  10. Trick or Treat 2 by Teachers PayTeachers
  11. Trick or Treat 3 by Project Autism
  12. Trick or Treat 4 by Teachers Notebook
  13. Trick or Treat 5 by Chit Chat andSmall Talk
  14. Trick or Treat 6 by CCSD
  15. Trick or Treat 7 by A Legion for Liam
  16. Trick or Treat 8 by Autism Tank
  17. Halloween- Icons and Text by Indiana University
  18. What to Expect on Halloween Social Skill Story  by positively autism
  19. PPT Learning About Halloween by Carol Gray
  20. See Example below.

Halloween Social Story

My name is _____________________. Soon it will be Halloween. Lots of people like to dress up in costumes for Halloween. They dress up because it is fun. When kids wear costumes they are still the same kid inside the costume. The costume may look different but really the kid wearing the costume is the same. There are many costumes that are soft and feel good to wear. I can wear a costume, too! I may wear a ________________ costume.

On Halloween, different kids like to do different things. Some kids like to go to a party. Some kids like to go trick-or-treating. On Halloween I want
to_____________________________________________.

Halloween is exciting so sometimes there can be too much excitement. When I feel too excited
I can take a break or _____________________________________________________.

It is important to stay safe on Halloween. Kids need to stay with an adult. Kids need to always stay on the sidewalk and wait until an adult can take them across the street. I will only go to houses where the light is on and the house looks friendly.

I may get lots of treats on Halloween. My ________________ will let me know when I can eat my treat.

I will have fun on Halloween!

Source

Trick or Treat Cards

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Link to other styles of cards: Click Here

Link to Printable PDF of above cards for nonverbal/ reluctant to say “Trick or Treat”.

 

 

Suicide Prevention Training via ASIST

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Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) is a two-day interactive workshop in suicide first aid. ASIST teaches participants to recognize when someone may have thoughts of suicide and work with them to create a plan that will support their immediate safety. Although ASIST is widely used by healthcare providers, participants don’t need any formal training to attend the workshop—anyone 16 or older can learn and use the ASIST model.

Since its development in 1983, ASIST has received regular updates to reflect improvements in knowledge and practice, and over 1,000,000 people have taken the workshop. Studies show that the ASIST method helps reduce suicidal feelings in those at risk and is a cost-effective way to help address the problem of suicide.

Learning goals and objectives

Over the course of their two-day workshop, ASIST participants learn to:

  • Understand the ways that personal and societal attitudes affect views on suicide and interventions
  • Provide guidance and suicide first aid to a person at risk in ways that meet their individual safety needs
  • Identify the key elements of an effective suicide safety plan and the actions required to implement it
  • Appreciate the value of improving and integrating suicide prevention resources in the community at large
  • Recognize other important aspects of suicide prevention including life-promotion and self-care

Workshop features:

  • Presentations and guidance from two LivingWorks registered trainers
  • A scientifically proven intervention model
  • Powerful audiovisual learning aids
  • Group discussions
  • Skills practice and development
  • A balance of challenge and safety

Suicide is a Wicked Problem

Suicide is a wicked problem because it kills and injures millions of people each year, it is a complex behavior with many contributing factors, and it can be difficult to prevent. 1.1 One million people die by suicide each year An estimated one million people died by suicide in 2000; over 100,000 of those who died were adolescents (World Health Organization, 2009). If current trends continue, over 1.5 million people are expected to die by suicide in the year 2020 (Bertolote & Fleischmann, 2002). The world wide suicide rate is estimated to be 16 deaths per 100,000 people per year (World Health Organization, 2009).

 
For every person who dies by suicide, many more make an attempt

 
The ratio of suicide attempts to deaths can vary depending upon age. For adolescents, there can be as many as 200 attempts for every suicide death, but for seniors there may be as few as 4 attempts for every suicide death (Berman, Jobes, & Silverman, 2006; Goldsmith, Pellmar, Kleinman, & Bunney, 2002). A recent household survey conducted in the United States estimated that 8.3 million adults had serious thoughts about suicide in the past year, that 2.3 million had made a suicide plan, and 1.1 million had attempted suicide (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Office of Applied Studies, 2009). A survey of Australian adults conducted by the World Health Organization found that 4.2% of respondents had attempted suicide at least once during their lifetime (De Leo, Cerin, Spathonis, & Burgis, 2005).

 

The devastation of suicide affects many

 

Suicide is devastating. Not only for those who suffer, are injured, and die from it, but also for their family, friends, and others. The total devastation of suicide is perhaps best summarized by a quote from Kay Redfield Jamison:
Suicide is a particularly awful way to die: the mental suffering leading up to it is usually prolonged, intense, and unpalliated. There is no morphine equivalent to ease the acute pain, and death not uncommonly is violent and grisly. The suffering of the suicidal is private and inexpressible, leaving family members, friends, and colleagues to deal with an almost unfathomable kind of loss, as well as guilt. Suicide carries in its aftermath a level of confusion and devastation that is, for the most part, beyond description (Jamison, 1999, p. 24).

Source

Additional Reading

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Phonemic Awareness Assessments from LRI

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LRI has created these English assessments for Preschool, Kindergarten and 1st grade. The assessments were created to inform teachers about a child’s progress with phonemic awareness throughout the school year, and they can be used as a tool for determining where to start the Phonemic Awareness curriculum when implementing the lesson mid-year. The assessments align with the Phonological Awareness Standards of the Common Core State Standards.

Assessment Scoring Guides

Spanish Phonemic Awareness Assessments

Common Core in relation to Phonological Awareness (K-1)

Alignment to the Common Core State Standards for Phonological Awareness: Kindergarten

Alignment to the Common Core State Standards for Phonological Awareness: Grade 1