I ran across this Nemours website by accident looking for developmental reading resources and I found so much more. I hope you find it as useful as I have in looking at reading and health subjects in a very concise and accessible format.
- Building a Culture of Health Through Safe and Healthy Elementary School Recess
- Dr. Ken Shore’s Classroom Problem Solver Playground Behaviors
- A Parent’s Guide to Conflict Resolution & Peer Mediation (School Example)
- Playground Management Plan (Very Clear and Comprehensive)
- Good practical collection of tools utilizing the “Peace Program”
- The Importance of Outdoor Play and Its Impact on Brain Development In Children
- The Importance of Recess, Play, and Active Classrooms
- A Research-Based Case for Recess
- Give me a Break! Can Strategic Recess Scheduling Increase On-Task Behavior for First Graders?
- Is the Elimination of Recess in School a Violation of a Child’s Basic Human Rights?
- Playing Fair: The Contribution of High-Functioning Recess to Overall School Climate in Low-Income Elementary Schools
- Recess in Elementary School: What Does the Research Say?
- School Recess and Group Classroom Behavior
- School Recess and Social Development
- The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools
- The Role of Recess in Children’s Cognitive Performance and School Adjustment
What you promote by creating a positive recess experience:
Outdoor Play Allows a School-Aged Child to:
-Increase the flow of blood to the brain. The blood delivers oxygen and glucose, which the brain needs for heightened alertness and mental focus.
-Build up the body’s level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF, BDNF causes the brain’s nerve cells to branch out, join together and communicate with each other in new ways, which leads to your child’s openness to learning an more capacity for knowledge
-Build new brain cells in a brain region called dentate gyrus, which is linked
with memory and memory loss.
-Improves their ability to learn.
-Increase the size of basal ganglia, a key part of the brain that aids in
maintaining attention and “executive control,” or the ability to coordinate
actions and thoughts crisply.
-Strengthen the vestibular systems that create spatial awareness and mental
alertness. This provides your child with the framework for reading and other
Addressing Conflict on the Yard
Conflict is normal
Conﬂict is a normal part of children’s lives. Having different needs or wants, or wanting the same thing when only one is available, can easily lead children into conﬂict with one another. “She won’t let me play,” “He took my …”, “Tom’s being mean!” are complaints that parents, carers and school staff often hear when children get into conﬂict and are unable to resolve it. Common ways that children respond to conﬂ ict include arguing and physical aggression, as well as more passive responses such as backing off and avoiding one another.
When conﬂict is poorly managed it can have a negative impact on children’s relationships, on their self-esteem and on their learning. However, teaching children the skills for resolving conﬂict can help signiﬁ cantly. By learning to manage conﬂict effectively, children’s skills for getting along with others can be improved. Children are much happier, have better friendships and are better learners at school when they know how to manage conﬂict well.
Different ways of responding to conflict
Since children have different needs and preferences, experiencing conﬂict with others is unavoidable. Many children (and adults) think of conﬂict as a competition that can only be decided by having a winner and a loser. The problem with thinking about conﬂict in this way is that it promotes win-lose behaviour: children who want to win try to dominate the other person; children who think they can’t win try to avoid the conﬂict. This does not result in effective conﬂict resolution.
Win-lose approaches to conflict
Children may try to get their way in a conﬂict by using force. Some children give in to try to stop the conﬂict, while others try to avoid the situation altogether. These different styles are shown below. When introducing younger children to the different ways that conﬂicts can be handled, talking about the ways the animals included as examples below might deal with conﬂict can help their understanding. It introduces an element of fun and enjoyment.
Conflict style Animal example Child’s behaviour Force Shark, bull, lion Argues, yells, debates, threatens, uses logic to impose own view. Give in Jelly fish, teddy bear Prevents fights, tries to make others happy. Avoid Ostrich, turtle Thinks or says: “I don’t want conflict.” Distracts, talks about something else, leaves the room or the relationship.
Sometimes these approaches appear to work in the short-term, but they create other sets of problems. When children use force to win in a conﬂict it creates resentment and fear in others. Children who ‘win’ using this approach may develop a pattern of dominating and bullying others to get what they want. Children who tend to give in or avoid conﬂict may lack both conﬁdence and skills for appropriate assertive behaviour. They are more likely to be dominated or bullied by others and may feel anxious and negative about themselves.
It is possible instead to respond to conﬂict in positive ways that seek a fair outcome. Instead of being seen as a win-lose competition, conﬂict can be seen as an opportunity to build healthier and more respectful relationships through understanding the perspectives of others.
Win-some lose-some: Using compromise to resolve conflict
Adults have a signiﬁcant impact on how children deal with conﬂict. Often adults encourage children to deal with conﬂict by compromising. Compromising means that no-one wins or loses outright. Each person gets some of what they want and also gives up some of what they want. Many children learn how to compromise as they grow and ﬁnd ways to negotiate friendships. It is common around the middle of primary school for children to become very concerned with fairness and with rules as a way of ensuring fairness. This may correspond with an approach to resolving conﬂict that is based on compromise.
Conflict style Animal example Child’s behaviour Compromise Fox I give a bit and expect you to give a bit too.
Win-win: Using cooperation to resolve conflict
Using a win-win approach means ﬁnding out more about the problem and looking together for creative solutions so that everyone can get what they want.
Conflict style Animal example Child’s behaviour Sort out the problem
Owl Discover ways of helping everyone in the conflict to get what they want.
Skills required for effective conflict resolution
Effective conﬂict resolution requires children to apply a combination of well-developed social and emotional skills. These include skills for managing feelings, understanding others, communicating effectively and making decisions. Children need guidance and ‘coaching’ to learn these skills. Learning to use all the skills effectively in combination takes practice and maturity. However, with guidance children can begin to use a win-win model and gradually develop their abilities to resolve conﬂicts independently.
Skill What to encourage children to learn
- Manage strong emotions
- Use strategies to control strong feelings
- Verbally express own thoughts and feelings
- Identify and communicate thoughts and feelings
- Identify the problem and express own needs
- Talk about their own wants/needs/fears/concerns without demanding an immediate solution
- Understand the other person’s perspective
- Listen to what the other person wants/needs
- Understand the other person’s fears/concerns
- Understand without having to agree
- Respond sensitively and appropriately
- Generate a number of solutions to the problem
- Think of a variety of options
- Try to include the needs and concerns of everyone involved
- Negotiate a win-win solution
- Be ﬂexible
- Be open-minded
- Look after own needs as well as the other person’s needs (be assertive)
Guiding children through the steps of conflict resolution
1. Set the stage for WIN-WIN outcomes
Conﬂict arises when people have different needs or views of a situation. Make it clear that you are going to help the children listen to each other’s point of view and look for ways to solve the problem that everyone can agree to.
- Ask, “What’s the problem here?” Be sure to get both sides of the story (eg “He won’t let me have a turn” from one child, and “I only just started and it’s my game,” from another).
- Say, I’m sure if we talk this through we’ll be able to sort it out so that everyone is happy.”
2. Have children state their own needs and concerns
The aim is to ﬁnd out how each child sees the problem. Help children identify and communicate their needs and concerns without judging or blaming.
- Ask, “What do you want or need? What are you most concerned about?”
3. Help children listen to the other person and understand their needs and concerns
In the heat of conﬂict it can be difﬁcult to understand that the other person has feelings and needs too. Listening to the other person helps to reduce the conﬂict and allows children to think of the problem as something they can solve together.
- Ask, “So you want to have a turn at this game now because it’s nearly time to go home? And you want to keep playing to see if you can get to the next level?”
- Show children that you understand both points of view: “I can understand why you want to get your turn. I can see why you don’t want to stop now.”
4. Help children think of different ways to solve the problem
Often children who get into conﬂict can only think of one solution. Getting them to think of creative ways for solving the conﬂict encourages them to come up with new solutions that no-one thought of before. Ask them to let the ideas ﬂow and think of as many options as they can, without judging any of them.
- Encourage them: “Let’s think of at least three things we could do to solve this problem.”
5. Build win-win solutions
Help children sort through the list of options you have come up with together and choose those that appear to meet everybody’s needs. Sometimes a combination of the options they have thought of will work best. Together, you can help them build a solution that everyone agrees to.
- Ask: Which solution do you think can work? Which option can we make work together?
6. Put the solution into action and see how it works
Make sure that children understand what they have agreed to and what this means in practice.
- Say, “Okay, so this is what we’ve agreed. Tom, you’re going to show Wendy how to play the game, then Wendy, you’re going to have a try, and I’m going to let you know when 15 minutes is up.”
Key points for helping children resolve conﬂict
The ways that adults respond to children’s conﬂicts have powerful effects on their behaviour and skill development. Until they have developed their own skills for managing conﬂict effectively most children will need very speciﬁc adult guidance to help them reach a good resolution. Parents, carers and teaching staff can help children in sorting out conflict together, by seeing conﬂict as a shared problem that can be solved by understanding both points of view and ﬁnding a solution that everyone is happy with.
Guide and coach
When adults impose a solution on children it may solve the conﬂict in the short term, but it can leave children feeling that their wishes have not been taken into account. Coaching children through the conﬂict resolution steps helps them feel involved. It shows them how effective conﬂict resolution can work so that they can start to build their own skills.
Listen to all sides without judging
To learn the skills for effective conﬂict resolution children need to be able to acknowledge their own point of view and listen to others’ views without fearing that they will be blamed or judged. Being heard encourages children to hear and understand what others have to say and how they feel, and helps them to learn to value others.
Support children to work through strong feelings
Conﬂict often generates strong feelings such as anger or anxiety. These feelings can get in the way of being able to think through conﬂicts fairly and reasonably. Acknowledge children’s feelings and help them to manage them. It may be necessary to help children calm down before trying to resolve the conﬂict.
- Praise children for ﬁnding a solution and carrying it out.
- If an agreed solution doesn’t work out the ﬁrst time, go through the steps again to understand the needs and concerns and ﬁnd a different solution.
The information in this resource is based on Wertheim, E., Love, A., Peck, C. & Littlefield, L. (2006). Skills for resolving conflict (2nd Edition). Melbourne: Eruditions Publishing.
Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) is a two-day interactive workshop in suicide first aid. ASIST teaches participants to recognize when someone may have thoughts of suicide and work with them to create a plan that will support their immediate safety. Although ASIST is widely used by healthcare providers, participants don’t need any formal training to attend the workshop—anyone 16 or older can learn and use the ASIST model.
Since its development in 1983, ASIST has received regular updates to reflect improvements in knowledge and practice, and over 1,000,000 people have taken the workshop. Studies show that the ASIST method helps reduce suicidal feelings in those at risk and is a cost-effective way to help address the problem of suicide.
Learning goals and objectives
Over the course of their two-day workshop, ASIST participants learn to:
- Understand the ways that personal and societal attitudes affect views on suicide and interventions
- Provide guidance and suicide first aid to a person at risk in ways that meet their individual safety needs
- Identify the key elements of an effective suicide safety plan and the actions required to implement it
- Appreciate the value of improving and integrating suicide prevention resources in the community at large
- Recognize other important aspects of suicide prevention including life-promotion and self-care
- Presentations and guidance from two LivingWorks registered trainers
- A scientifically proven intervention model
- Powerful audiovisual learning aids
- Group discussions
- Skills practice and development
- A balance of challenge and safety
Suicide is a Wicked Problem
Suicide is a wicked problem because it kills and injures millions of people each year, it is a complex behavior with many contributing factors, and it can be difficult to prevent. 1.1 One million people die by suicide each year An estimated one million people died by suicide in 2000; over 100,000 of those who died were adolescents (World Health Organization, 2009). If current trends continue, over 1.5 million people are expected to die by suicide in the year 2020 (Bertolote & Fleischmann, 2002). The world wide suicide rate is estimated to be 16 deaths per 100,000 people per year (World Health Organization, 2009).
For every person who dies by suicide, many more make an attempt
The ratio of suicide attempts to deaths can vary depending upon age. For adolescents, there can be as many as 200 attempts for every suicide death, but for seniors there may be as few as 4 attempts for every suicide death (Berman, Jobes, & Silverman, 2006; Goldsmith, Pellmar, Kleinman, & Bunney, 2002). A recent household survey conducted in the United States estimated that 8.3 million adults had serious thoughts about suicide in the past year, that 2.3 million had made a suicide plan, and 1.1 million had attempted suicide (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Office of Applied Studies, 2009). A survey of Australian adults conducted by the World Health Organization found that 4.2% of respondents had attempted suicide at least once during their lifetime (De Leo, Cerin, Spathonis, & Burgis, 2005).
The devastation of suicide affects many
Suicide is devastating. Not only for those who suffer, are injured, and die from it, but also for their family, friends, and others. The total devastation of suicide is perhaps best summarized by a quote from Kay Redfield Jamison:
Suicide is a particularly awful way to die: the mental suffering leading up to it is usually prolonged, intense, and unpalliated. There is no morphine equivalent to ease the acute pain, and death not uncommonly is violent and grisly. The suffering of the suicidal is private and inexpressible, leaving family members, friends, and colleagues to deal with an almost unfathomable kind of loss, as well as guilt. Suicide carries in its aftermath a level of confusion and devastation that is, for the most part, beyond description (Jamison, 1999, p. 24).
- ASIST info sheet (PDF / 3.9 MB)
- ASIST and the NAASP clinical workforce guidelines (PDF / 257 KB)
- Evidence in Support of the ASIST 11 Program (PDF / 172 KB)
- ASIST Experiences and Recommendations (PDF / 989 KB)
- Review of ASIST (PDF / 1.8 MB)
- The Use and Impact of ASIST in Scotland (PDF / 1.5 MB)
- Gould Study Summary (PDF / 1.9 MB)
- Review of the Operation Life Suicide Awareness Workshops (PDF / 2.4 MB)
- Evaluation of the Scottish safeTALK pilot (PDF / 351 KB)
- safeTALK Manitoba Evaluation Highlights Report (PDF / 122 KB)
- SafeTALK Manitoba Evaluation Full Report (PDF / 1.5 MB)
The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) explains that hearing loss falls into four subcategories: conductive, sensorineural, mixed and central. These identify the location in the body in which the hearing impairment occurs. Hearing aids and other sound amplifying assistive technologies (AT) often work for students with conductive hearing loss, as their impairments stem from the outer or middle ear. Such does not hold true with sensorineural, mixed and central hearing losses, as these impairments stem from the inner ear, the central nervous system or a combination of the two. Typically, hearing loss is categorized as slight, mild, moderate, severe or profound, depending on how well an individual can hear the frequencies that are commonly associated with speech.
Educational obstacles related to hearing impairments stem around communication. A student with a hearing impairment may experience difficulty in:
- the subjects of grammar, spelling and vocabulary
- taking notes while listening to lectures
- participating in classroom discussions
- watching educational videos
- presenting oral reports
Underscoring the difficulty that students with hearing impairments may have in presenting oral reports are the potential language development problems linked to hearing impairments. Arizona’s Department of Education’s Parent Information Network notes that, “Since children with hearing impairments are unable to receive some sounds accurately, they often cannot articulate words clearly.”
Hearing Impairment Topic Categories via-
Article- The Cascading Impact of Hearing Loss on Access to School Communication Fragmented Hearing -> Effort -> Listening Comprehension -> Fatigue -> Pace of Learning It’s About Access, Not Hearing Loss
Epilepsy is a common disorder of the brain that causes recurring seizures. Epilepsy affects people of all ages, but children and older adults are more likely to have epilepsy. Seizures are the main sign of epilepsy and most people can control this with treatment. Some seizures can look like staring spells while other seizures can cause a person to collapse, stiffen or shake, and become unaware of what’s going on around them. Many times the cause is unknown.
About 0.6% of children ages 0-17 years have epilepsy in the United States. 2 That is about 460,000 children in 2013.1 Picture a school with 1,000 students—that means about 6 students would have epilepsy. For many children, epilepsy is easily controlled with medication and they can do what all the other kids can do, and perform as well academically. For others, it can be more challenging.
Compared with students with other health concerns, a CDC study shows that students aged 6–17 years with epilepsy were more likely to miss 11 or more days of school in the past year. Also, students with epilepsy were more likely to have difficulties in school, use special education services, and have activity limitations such as less participation in sports or clubs compared with students with other medical conditions. CDC also found that a larger percentage of children with epilepsy than those without the disorder lived in very low income households (below 200% of the federal poverty level). This suggests other unmet needs for families of children with epilepsy.
(Produced by the entire brain)
|1. “Grand Mal” or Generalized tonic-clonic||Unconsciousness, convulsions, muscle rigidity|
|2. Absence||Brief loss of consciousness|
|3. Myoclonic||Sporadic (isolated), jerking movements|
|4. Clonic||Repetitive, jerking movements|
|5. Tonic||Muscle stiffness, rigidity|
|6. Atonic||Loss of muscle tone|
For Students and Families
- Wally the Whale
- The Adventures of Oskar: Oskar’s New School.
- Lee the Rabbit with Epilepsy
- Becky The Brave
- Mommy I Feel Funny
- Let’s Learn with Teddy
- My Thinking Cap (A Coloring Book about Epilepsy)
- A Day with Dot: A Story and Activity Book – This short book features a few different activities and short stories.
- Let’s Learn About Epilepsy – An Activity Book for Children: A number of different activities and stories for elementary and middle school aged children.
- MediKidz – Epilepsy Activity Book: Tends to be for older kids and features quizzes.
- The Great Katie Kate Explains Epilepsy: The Great Katie Kate explains to the kids different types of seizures, treatments, and ways to stay healthy. I think it explains things so kids understand them and want to listen to them.
- Karen’s Epilepsy: What makes this book great is that it shows children how to respond to their feelings about things and how to react to what’s happening to them.
- I have epilepsy, but it doesn’t have me: This book follows an eight year old Jamie on her journey from being diagnosed with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy at age five.
- Taking Seizure Disorders to School: Its a great book for reading to elementary and middle school children.
Developmental Assets help children grow into caring, engaged, and responsible adults. Developmental Assets include the internal character strengths and commitments young people need as well as the external supports and opportunities they need from their families, schools, organizations, and communities.
Search Institute introduced the framework in 1990 and, since then, has studied developmental assets in more that 5 million youth across North America and around the world. The approach focuses on young people’s strengths and working across the many parts of their lives to support their growth and successful development. Hundreds of schools, coalitions, and other organizations have used the developmental assets as a guiding framework for their youth development efforts. Source
WHAT IS IT?
Asset Building, Resiliency and Youth Development and are philosophies and strategies for creating youth-centered environments that prioritize the positive development of young people.
WHY USE IT?
Research and practitioner experience has proven that a positive school day and after school environment that intentionally develops youth’s assets and adopts a youth development approach can provide the experiences and skills that youth need to develop into healthy adults.
WHEN TO USE IT?
Utilizing an asset building, resiliency and youth development based approach is effective in planning and facilitating all aspects of school day and after school programs. The approach can be used:
As the foundation of your school’s philosophy to establish emotionally, physically safe and engaging learning environments; As a framework for creating engaging classroom, program structures and activities that offer meaningful participation, build skills and expose youth to new opportunities and resources; As an approach for increasing youth involvement and youth buy in to lesson and activity components; As a professional development component or part of a job orientation for all staff.
HOW IT IS USED:
Below are three philosophies of asset building, resiliency and youth development that are often referred to by school sites, local city agencies and community based organizations.
SFUSD- School Health Programs Department encourages the following Asset Building, Resiliency and Youth Development core principles for working with young people as measured by the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS):
Young people have the capacity to develop and transform as they move toward adulthood.
Young people are genetically intended to develop and are actively seeking to meet their own needs.
All young people need the same types of positive resources:
-Caring, Respectful Relationships
-High, Clear and Fair Expectations
-Meaningful Opportunities to Participate and Contribute
All young people need adults in their lives.
First, the kids take a pretest called the DAP (Link). The school gets the results to help direct efforts to support students at their school based on the needs represented by the child responses. The school chooses activities to carry out throughout the year to intervene with the needs. Finally, a posttest of the DAP is given to measure the growth of the schools’ efforts to address the needs identified in the pretest DAP.
DAP QUICK REFERENCE
Length: 58 questions
Average Completion Rate:10 minutes
(Add at least 10 minutes for general instructions and collection.)
Youth: 4-12 grade; ages 9-18
Minimum youth needed for report: 30
Minimum time between Pre and Post: 3 months
Need a Copy of the 40 Developmental Assets?
These documents are provided, compliments of the Search Institute. Click on the links to download PDF copies of 40 Developmental Assets lists for different developmental stages and in different languages.
These pages may be reproduced for educational, noncommercial uses only. Copyright © 1997, 2006 by Search Institute, 615 First Avenue N.E.,Suite 125, Minneapolis, MN 55413; 800-888-7828; search-institute.org. All Rights Reserved.
The following are registered trademarks of Search Institute: Search Institute®, Developmental Assets® and Healthy Communities • Healthy Youth®.
Assets for Different Developmental Stages
- 40 Developmental Assets for Adolescents – what we term the “original” research
- 40 Developmental Assets for Early Childhood (ages 3-5)
- 40 Developmental Assets for Kindergarten Through Third Grade (ages 5-9)
- 40 Developmental Assets for Middle Childhood (ages 8-12)
Assets in Alternate Languages
Please note, these asset lists were compiled by Healthy Communities, Healthy Youth sites across the United States. They represent volunteer efforts. Assets lists in alternate stages for different developmental levels are not available for every language.
- 40 Developmental Assets in Spanish – Adolescent Version (ages 12-18)
- 40 Developmental Assets in Spanish – Kindergarten – Third Grade Version (ages 5-9)
- 40 Developmental Assets in Spanish – Early Childhood Version (ages 3-5)
- 40 Developmental Assets in Spanish – Middle Childhood Version (ages 8-12)
- 40 Developmental Assets in Khmer
- 40 Developmental Assets in Somali
- 40 Developmental Assets in Hmong
- 40 Developmental Assets in Chinese
WHAT IS AN INCLUSIVE PLAYGROUND?
An inclusive playground addresses the needs of all people including those who have autism, intellectual disabilities, hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, spina bifida and other disabilities. It also addresses the needs of typical children. An inclusive playground accommodates everyone and challenges them at their own developmental level. Source
After school how do I find an Inclusive Playground?
(courtesy of AAA State of Play in the article “How-To Accommodate Special Needs Children on the Playground”)
Follow these links to learn more about accommodating special-needs children on the playground:
- Kaboom! It Starts with a Playground: Special Needs
- Inclusion of Children with Disabilities or Other Special Needs (PDF)
- Including Children with Special Needs: Are You and Your Early Childhood Program Ready? (PDF)
- NPR: For Kids With Special Needs, More Places To Play
- Choosing Children’s Play Equipment (PDF)
- Friendship Park: A Playground For Children With Disabilities
- Universal Design in the Playground of Inclusion
- Playground Safety: Playgrounds for All Children (PDF)
- Playgrounds That Welcome Wheelchairs
- Playground Accessibility – ADA Compliance (PDF)
- Benefits and Barriers To Fitness For Children With Disabilities
- Accessible Playground Definitions
- Public Playground Accessibility Checklist (PDF)
- Let’s Play! Playground Accessibility and the ADA
- Commonly Asked Questions About Child Care Centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act
- Resources for Children with Special Needs (PDF)
- Students’ Drawings Inspire Plans for New Playground at Forest Oak Elementary
- The Value of Inclusive Play (PDF)
- All About Inclusive Play (PDF)
- Creating Inclusive Outdoor Play Environments: Designing for Ability Rather than Disability (PDF)
- Increasing Opportunities for Play
- Children’s Play Information Service: No.8 Inclusive Play (PDF)
- Inclusive Play and Disability (PDF)
- Let’s Play Together: Play and Inclusion (PDF)