Considerations for Academic Assessments and Interventions Upon the Return to School via NASP

happychildinclassroom | Oxford Learning

Considerations for Academic Assessments and Interventions Upon the Return to School

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COVID-19 has caused the closure of nearly all schools in the United States, affecting more than 55 million students. Efforts to continue education for children via remote instruction have been highly variable, ranging from daily contact via the web with the student’s regular teacher(s) to no contact at all. In fact, in the Los Angeles Times, Blume and Kohli reported that one-third of high school students in L.A. Unified had not checked in daily online with their teachers since schools had closed, and a much smaller number (15,000) had never checked in at all.

The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic raised immediate worries about students including their access to a safe and supervised environment comparable to what they would get in school, access to food programs, access to routine and compensatory special education services for students with disabilities, and the provision of general instruction toward important grade-level objectives necessary for success as children continue in school.

Schools are working now to determine when and how students and staff may return to school safely. One of the challenges that schools must address is the significant disruption to the learning process. Because students’ experiences during remote learning were highly variable, schools will need to assume that children have lost about 25% of the prior grade level’s instruction because most schools were closed for 8–10 weeks of the typical 36-week school year. Compounding the problem of lost instruction will be missing assessment data. Children are routinely screened for important milestones in reading, math, and writing and participate in year-end accountability assessments to quantify the degree to which the schools are providing instruction that is sufficient to help most children attain proficiency. Because of the timing of the closures, spring screenings and year-end accountability assessment data will not be available.

These converging events—loss of instruction and an absence of data—create a perfect storm for school psychologists who are responsible for helping schools meet the needs of diverse learners, including identifying and making eligible those students who are in need of special education. NASP has developed a series of resources and webinars to provide actionable how-to advice to cope with missing academic data, identify children in need of instructional supports, and use the resulting data to inform referral and eligibility decisions. These are available in the NASP COVID-19 Resource Center at http://www.nasponline.org/COVID-19. Importantly, many students will be returning to school with increased social-emotional and mental health issues associated with the crisis, which will complicate school function in many ways. It will be imperative that schools attend to the mental wellness of students on a school-wide, classroom, and individual basis as intentionally as academic interventions and supports. Resources regarding students’ mental health are also available in the NASP COVID-19 Resource Center.

New Screening Procedures Will Be Required

Schools—and school psychologists—will be eager to collect fall screening data to make decisions as quickly as possible upon a return to face-to-face learning. However, fall screening must proceed differently than it has in the past.

There will be a higher prevalence of academic risk in nearly all schools. Children will be arriving at the next grade level having only received about a 75% dose of the prior year’s academic instruction. To deal with this higher base rate of risk, screening procedures must account for base rates.

The figure below shows the posttest probabilities of academic failure across varying levels of risk. The greater the prevalence of risk (move toward the right on the x-axis), the less accurate the screening will be for ruling students out as not needing academic intervention, which is the purpose of academic screening. Negative posttest probability is the probability of academic failure when a student has passed the academic screening. So at 50% risk, 10% of students passing a screening that has .90 sensitivity and .90 specificity will actually experience academic failure. As prevalence increases, negative posttest probability climbs. Once negative posttest probability is greater than 10% (VanDerHeyden, 2013), or greater than your local base rate of risk which you can estimate from past year’s proficiency rates on the year-end test, the screening is not useful to rule students out as needing more intensive academic intervention than is currently provided in their general education environment. The key message here is that single-point-in-time screenings will not be sufficient for determining academic risk in the fall.

Use Class-Wide Intervention to Improve Decision Accuracy and Provide Learning Gains for Students

How can the school psychologist proceed in an environment in which academic screenings will not be useful to determine who is really at risk? Introduce instructional trials as rapidly as possible and measure students’ learning gains as the second screening gate. Class-wide intervention (e.g., PALS, class-wide peer tutoring, PRESS center reading, Spring Math class-wide intervention) lowers the base rate of risk to allow for academic screenings to function more accurately.

In a recent study, decision accuracy was examined for fall screening, winter screening, and response to class-wide intervention with above 20th percentile performance on the year-end test as the gold standard for students in kindergarten and grades 1, 3, 5, and 7 in mathematics. Negative posttest probabilities were stronger (lower) when response to class-wide intervention was used as the screening criterion (VanDerHeyden, Broussard, & Burns, 2019).

Here is another way to view the effect of class-wide intervention as a screening gate. In this class, at the beginning of intervention, the score range is highly restricted, which makes distinguishing which children are truly at risk technically difficult if not impossible. Introducing a daily 15-min class-wide intervention increases the score ranges over weeks of intervention and makes apparent the student who really requires intensified instruction or a comprehensive eligibility evaluation.

 

 

The figures below, reprinted from VanDerHeyden (2013) shows that the same screening is not useful due to a high base rate of risk before intervention, but following class-wide intervention becomes very useful for ruling students out as needing academic intervention.

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Accuracy of the Mathematics Screener for Students Who Receive a Free or Reduced-Price Lunch

 Illustration of the Use of Intervention to Reduce Overall Risk and Permit More Accurate Screening Decisions

Note. From “Universal Screening May Not Be for Everyone: Using a Threshold Model as a Smarter Way to Determine Risk,” by A. M. VanDerHeyden, 2013, School Psychology Review, 42, p. 410. (https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2013.12087462). Copyright 2013 by the National Association of School Psychologists. Reprinted with permission.

Relying on a Period of Waiting for General Education to Improve Base Rates Is Inefficient and Unlikely to Work

There will likely be a sense of urgency around completing pending evaluations and perhaps even new evaluations. All evaluation teams are required to determine if a student’s academic concerns are a result of a lack of instruction when considering specific learning disability (SLD) identification regardless of the approach to eligibility determination that is used. Assessing the quality of instruction provided during the COVID-19 school closing is fraught with problems. Whether the instruction at home was delivered by caregivers or through an internet connection with teachers, decision teams cannot presume that the quality of core instruction replicated what would have happened in school. Except in unusual cases, the quality of instruction likely cannot be ruled sufficient.

Instruction as a cause (the most likely cause) of poor performance can only be ruled out by delivering a dose of instruction and measuring the child’s response directly. There is no substitute for that step and even if you choose to use a method other than response to intervention (RTI) to satisfy criterion 1 and 2, you still must satisfy criterion 4 to determine eligibility for SLD.

School psychologists may be tempted to institute waiting periods before recommending Tier 2 or 3 interventions as a means to avoid overpopulating those intervention groups and depleting resources. Waiting times have not been shown to lower risk over time. At best it is a tactic that will be highly variable (i.e., dependent on the quality of core instruction and teacher-initiated supplementation of core instruction) and at worst, it will be less efficient.

School psychologists should not enter a hands-off waiting period with schools. Rather, school psychologists should return to school equipped to help teachers boost their core instruction, given that children will likely be arriving with skill gaps. School psychologists can support teachers in delivering class-wide intervention and small groups to provide acquisition instruction for missing prerequisite skills and fluency-building intervention for skills that are foundational for subsequent learning at each grade level.

Decision teams can use the resulting performance data of students to determine who really needs a diagnostic assessment, individualized instruction, and potentially an eligibility evaluation. Controlling the dose of instruction allows this identification to occur in a more rapid and nimble fashion than would be possible otherwise. It is possible to make a decision about the need for more intensive academic intervention following only 4 weeks of well-implemented class-wide intervention.

Delivering High-Quality Class-Wide Intervention Requires Focus on Implementation

A new survey study out by Silva et al. (in press) examines actions taken in the name of multitiered systems of support (MTSS) and RTI. This survey replicates the findings of an earlier study (Burns, Peters, & Noell, 2008) finding that very particular barriers continue to interfere with the capacity of school psychologists to help schools use MTSS to improve achievement. School psychologists encounter the same barriers now as we did in 2008: we struggle to interpret the data we collect, to effectively get interventions underway, and to use implementation science to ensure high-quality implementation of academic interventions. In the Silva et al. (2020) study, only 7% of respondents reported looking at intervention integrity when an intervention was not working as planned.

In a context of elevated base rates of academic risk, we must do better. When children return to school, hopefully this fall, there will be an opportunity for school psychologists to be highly useful instructional allies to teachers. We can use our rapport and trust with teachers to connect, support, and empower them to do what works. Implementing class-wide academic intervention will produce achievement gains for students and as a wonderful side effect, will give us the best data upon which to base referral and eligibility decisions.

This series of resources and webinars will equip you to move forward with the right actions to screen, implement class-wide interventions in reading, writing, and math, and to use the resulting data for referral and eligibility decision making regarding SLD.

References

Blume, H., & Kohli, S. (2020, March 30). 15,000 L.A. high school students are AWOL online, 40,000 fail to check in daily amid coronavirus closures. Los Angeles Timeshttps://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-03-30/coronavirus-los-angeles-schools-15000-high-school-students-absent

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 537–550. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2008.04.001

Silva, M. R., Collier-Meek, M. A., Codding, R. S., Kleinert, W. L., & Feinberg, A. (2020). Data Collection and Analysis in Response-to-Intervention: A Survey of School Psychologists. Contemporary School Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-020-00280-2

VanDerHeyden, A. M. (2013). Universal screening may not be for everyone: Using a threshold model as a smarter way to determine risk. School Psychology Review, 42, 402–414.

VanDerHeyden, A. M., Broussard, C., & Burns, M. K. (2019). Classification Agreement for Gated Screening in Mathematics: Subskill Mastery Measurement and Classwide Intervention. Assessment for Effective Intervention. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508419882484

Contributor: Amanda VanDerHeyden

Please cite as:

National Association of School Psychologists. (2020). Considerations for academic assessments and interventions upon a return to school [handout]. Author.

© 2020, National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West Highway, Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814, 301-657-0270, http://www.nasponline.org

Promising UCLA program “PEERS” to Improve Social Skills in Preschoolers, Adolescents, and Young Adults (Autism, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and other socioemotional problems.

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UCLA PEERS ® CLINIC

The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS®) was originally developed at UCLA by Dr. Elizabeth Laugeson, Founder and Director of the UCLA PEERS® Clinic, and Dr. Fred Frankel in 2005 and has expanded to locations across the United States and the world. PEERS® is a manualized, social skills training intervention for youth with social challenges. It has a strong evidence-base for use with adolescents and young adults with an autism spectrum disorder but is also appropriate for preschoolers, adolescents, and young adults with ADHD, anxiety, depression, and other socioemotional problems.

SERVICES:
  • PEERS® for Adolescents: We offer a 16-week evidence-based social skills intervention for motivated adolescents in middle school or high school who are interested in learning ways to help them make and keep friends. For more information, please visit the PEERS® for Adolescents section.
  • PEERS® for Young Adults: We offer a 16-week evidence-based social skills intervention for motivated young adults (18-35 years old) who are interested in learning ways to help them make and keep friends, and to develop romantic relationships. For more information, please visit the PEERS® for Young Adults section.
  • PEERS® for Preschoolers: We offer a 16-week evidence-based social skills intervention for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder between 4 to 6 years of age who have difficulty in their peer interactions and friendships. For more information, please visit the PEERS® for Preschoolers section.

Director: Elizabeth Laugeson, Psy.D.

Site: Semel Institute/NPI

PODCAST-

RESOURCES

From the Director Dr. Laugeson-

 

 Role play videos for social skills.

Conversational Skills

  Trading Information (Example 1)
  Trading Information (Example 2)
  Don’t be a conversation hog
  Don’t be an interviewer
  Don’t get too personal at first
  Don’t police
  Don’t tease
  Don’t be argumentative
  Don’t brag
  Use good volume control (bad example: too loud)
  Use good volume control (bad example: too quiet)
  Use good body boundaries (bad example: too close)
  Use good body boundaries (bad example: too far away)
  Use good eye contact (bad example: no eye contact)
  Use good eye contact (bad example: staring)

Starting Individual Conversations

  Starting an individual conversation (bad example)
  Starting an individual conversation (good example)

Entering Group Conversations

  Entering a group conversation (bad example)
  Entering a group conversation (good example)

Exiting Conversations

  Exiting when never accepted (bad example)
  Exiting when never accepted (good example)
  Exiting when initially accepted and then excluded (good example)
  Exiting when fully accepted (bad example)
  Exiting when fully accepted (good example)

Electronic Communication

  Exchanging contact information (bad example)
  Exchanging contact information (good example)
  Beginning phone calls (bad example)
  Beginning phone calls (good example)
  Ending phone calls (bad example)
  Ending phone calls (good example)
  Leaving voicemail (bad example)
  Leaving voicemail (good example)

Appropriate Use of Humor

  Giving a courtesy laugh (bad example)
  Giving a courtesy laugh (good example)
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 1
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 2
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 3
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 4
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 5
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 6

Appropriate Use of Humor

  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 7
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 8
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 9
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing with) 10
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 1
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 2
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 3
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 4
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 5
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 6
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 7
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 8
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 9
  Pay attention to your humor feedback (laughing at) 10

Good Sportsmanship

  Don’t cheat
  Don’t be a referee
  Don’t be a coach
  Don’t be competitive
  Help and show concern if someone is injured
  Suggest a change if bored
  Don’t be a bad winner
  Don’t be a sore loser
  Being a good sport (good example)

Get-Togethers

  Beginning a get-together (bad example)
  Beginning a get-together (good example)
  Ending a get-together (bad example)
  Ending a get-together (good example)

Handling Arguments

  Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen)
  Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat)
  Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat, explain)
  Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat, explain, say sorry)
  Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat, explain, say sorry, solve the problem)
  Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately)
  Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain)
  Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen)
  Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen, repeat)
  Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen, repeat, tell them what you need)
  Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen, repeat, tell them what you need, solve the problem)

Handling Teasing

  Handling teasing (male example)
  Handling teasing (female example)

Handling Rumors and Gossip

  Spread the rumor about yourself (bad example)
  Spread the rumor about yourself (good example)

Dating Etiquette

  Talking to a mutual friend
  Flirting with your eyes (bad example)
  Flirting with your eyes (good example)
  Ask them if they’re dating anyone (bad example)
  Ask them if they’re dating anyone (good example)
  Giving compliments (bad example)
  Giving compliments (good example)
  Asking someone on a date (bad example)
  Asking someone on a date (good example)
  Accepting rejection (bad example)
  Accepting rejection (good example)
  Turning someone down (bad example)
  Turning someone down (good example)
  Beginning a date (bad example)
  Beginning a date (good example)
  Two offer rule
  Ending a date (bad example)
  Ending a date (good example)
  Handling sexual pressure from a partner (bad example)
  Handling sexual pressure from partners (good example)

Suicide Prevention Training via ASIST

AS colour solid

Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) is a two-day interactive workshop in suicide first aid. ASIST teaches participants to recognize when someone may have thoughts of suicide and work with them to create a plan that will support their immediate safety. Although ASIST is widely used by healthcare providers, participants don’t need any formal training to attend the workshop—anyone 16 or older can learn and use the ASIST model.

Since its development in 1983, ASIST has received regular updates to reflect improvements in knowledge and practice, and over 1,000,000 people have taken the workshop. Studies show that the ASIST method helps reduce suicidal feelings in those at risk and is a cost-effective way to help address the problem of suicide.

Learning goals and objectives

Over the course of their two-day workshop, ASIST participants learn to:

  • Understand the ways that personal and societal attitudes affect views on suicide and interventions
  • Provide guidance and suicide first aid to a person at risk in ways that meet their individual safety needs
  • Identify the key elements of an effective suicide safety plan and the actions required to implement it
  • Appreciate the value of improving and integrating suicide prevention resources in the community at large
  • Recognize other important aspects of suicide prevention including life-promotion and self-care

Workshop features:

  • Presentations and guidance from two LivingWorks registered trainers
  • A scientifically proven intervention model
  • Powerful audiovisual learning aids
  • Group discussions
  • Skills practice and development
  • A balance of challenge and safety

Suicide is a Wicked Problem

Suicide is a wicked problem because it kills and injures millions of people each year, it is a complex behavior with many contributing factors, and it can be difficult to prevent. 1.1 One million people die by suicide each year An estimated one million people died by suicide in 2000; over 100,000 of those who died were adolescents (World Health Organization, 2009). If current trends continue, over 1.5 million people are expected to die by suicide in the year 2020 (Bertolote & Fleischmann, 2002). The world wide suicide rate is estimated to be 16 deaths per 100,000 people per year (World Health Organization, 2009).

 
For every person who dies by suicide, many more make an attempt

 
The ratio of suicide attempts to deaths can vary depending upon age. For adolescents, there can be as many as 200 attempts for every suicide death, but for seniors there may be as few as 4 attempts for every suicide death (Berman, Jobes, & Silverman, 2006; Goldsmith, Pellmar, Kleinman, & Bunney, 2002). A recent household survey conducted in the United States estimated that 8.3 million adults had serious thoughts about suicide in the past year, that 2.3 million had made a suicide plan, and 1.1 million had attempted suicide (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Office of Applied Studies, 2009). A survey of Australian adults conducted by the World Health Organization found that 4.2% of respondents had attempted suicide at least once during their lifetime (De Leo, Cerin, Spathonis, & Burgis, 2005).

 

The devastation of suicide affects many

 

Suicide is devastating. Not only for those who suffer, are injured, and die from it, but also for their family, friends, and others. The total devastation of suicide is perhaps best summarized by a quote from Kay Redfield Jamison:
Suicide is a particularly awful way to die: the mental suffering leading up to it is usually prolonged, intense, and unpalliated. There is no morphine equivalent to ease the acute pain, and death not uncommonly is violent and grisly. The suffering of the suicidal is private and inexpressible, leaving family members, friends, and colleagues to deal with an almost unfathomable kind of loss, as well as guilt. Suicide carries in its aftermath a level of confusion and devastation that is, for the most part, beyond description (Jamison, 1999, p. 24).

Source

Additional Reading

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Joel Shaul’s Autism Spectrum Resources

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Recently, I ran across a treasure trove of resources from  http://autismteachingstrategies.com/. It was designed and published by Joel Shaul.  In this blog post I will provide links to his content.

Joel Shaul specializes in mental health services for children and teens at the autism spectrum.

In his work with children on the autism spectrum in various settings, Joel has noticed a need for more engaging social skills curricula, stronger visual components and more compelling social skills learning activities.  He first created the World of Ryuu with Rebecca Klaw, another Pittsburgh-based professional working with children with Asperger’s or other autism spectrum disorders.  His  two illustrated children’s books, The Conversation Train and The Green Zone Conversation Book, are published by Jessica Kingsley Publishers.  Joel provides dozens of free social skills downloads on this website.

Through Autism Teaching Strategies, Joel provides trainings nationwide on the topics of social skills teaching and effective counseling for children with high functioning autism.

Joel provides individual and group services, in schools and clinical settings, at The Watson Institute in Sewickley, Pa.

He received a master’s degree in social work from the University of Louisville in 1986 and a bachelor’s degree in psychology from the University of Michigan in 1979.  Joel was a community organizer with the Peace Corps in Sierra Leone where he helped to build a midwife clinic and develop a health education curriculum for primary schools.

Source

Videos

Upset Feelings Video for Kids: CBT Video One

Upset Feelings Video for Kids: CBT Video Two

Upset Feelings Video for Kids: CBT Video Three

Upset Feelings Video for Kids: CBT Video Four

Upset Feelings Video for Kids: CBT Video Five

Upset Feelings Video for Kids:  CBT Video Six

Upset Feeling Video for Kids: CBT Video Seven

Upset Feelings Video for Kids: CBT Video Eight

Materials and Strategies

CBT Thought Bubbles: How to Download and Use Them

Simple CBT Worksheets: How to Download and Use Them

Brief descriptions of the free download resources on social communication

Brief descriptions of the free download resources on emotional regulation

Brief descriptions of the free download resources combining relationships/emotions/communication

Using visual word prompts and a song to teach showing interest to kids with ASD

Using picture prompts for non-verbal communication for children with ASD

Using chain and girder pictures to teach conversation skills to kids with ASD

Using a balance to teach relationship reciprocity to children with ASD

Using a balance to teach conversation reciprocity to children with ASD

Using a flip camera for social skills training for kids with ASD

How to make social-skills training game-like and fun for children with ASD

Social-skills training technique for ASD, using tokens

Hello songs to reinforce greetings for kids with ASD

Goodbye song for teaching goodbye to kids with ASD

Social-skills song to promote eye contact for kids with ASD

Social Skills

FREE SOCIAL SKILLS DOWNLOADS

Card Game

The World of Ryuu*

3-ryuu-cards

Using a fantasy world of dragons to build social skills in humans.
Ryuu products are a collection of teaching and therapy aids based on a fantasy world of dragons. Ryuu  activities teach social and emotional skills to children and teens with autism, Asperger Syndrome, and other autism spectrum disorders. These products are designed to teach social, emotional and communication skills by combining fantasy worlds, card collecting, and role play.

*Sold at www.ryuuworld.com.

Slow Learners

every-child-deserves-a

Children with less ability, such as slow learners or students with low average intelligence, could not be expected to learn as well because their potential was less and, therefore, their difficulties in learning could be explained (Meyer, 2000).

Helping Slow Learners Succeed

In this Principal Leadership article, McGill University professor Steven Shaw focuses on slow learners, many of whom, he says, fall through “one of the largest and most pervasive cracks in the educational system.” Students with borderline intelligence, who make up about 14 percent of the student population, don’t quality for special education but often do poorly in regular classrooms and high-stakes tests. “Standard systems and supports are often ineffective – even counterproductive – because they fail to meet students’ specific learning needs and instead create a cycle of failure,” says Shaw. “By the time many of these students get to high school, their academic difficulties and related self-perceptions and attitudes toward learning are entrenched.” They are disproportionately kept back, get in trouble, drop out, and are underemployed, unemployed, or incarcerated. Still, many slow learners graduate from high school and complete postsecondary education.

Shaw lists some keys to success:

– Making sure they have close relationships with one or two staff members;

– Maximizing academically engaged time and providing extra time on task;

– Breaking down lessons and tasks into manageable chunks;

– Presenting information concretely versus abstractly and relating it to real-world experiences;

– Using hands-on activities and computer-assisted instruction to reinforce learning;

– Helping students relate new material to previous learning and organize it for effective memory storage;

– Providing repetition and frequent practice of discrete skills applied to different challenges;

– Helping students generalize skills and knowledge and apply them to new situations;

– Providing a variety of ways to demonstrate competence;

– Pairing students with peer mentors; – Helping them set long-term goals and manage their time;

– Helping them develop academic motivation by getting them involved in activities they enjoy and in which they are successful;

– Maintaining high expectations and rewarding genuine effort.

It’s a myth that slow learners need slow-paced instruction, says Shaw. “Slower-paced instruction is a surefire recipe for falling further behind,” he says. “Students with borderline intellectual functioning require more practice opportunities in the same amount of time as their average-ability peers. An appropriately paced classroom is one that is well organized, that uses computer-assisted instruction, and is taught by a teacher who has high expectations for rapid work completion. This type of environment enables slow learners to learn the discrete facts they need to know to overcome their limitations in generalization. Computer-assisted instruction makes learning basic skills automatic, which is essential to gaining fluency.” “Rescuing Students from the Slow Learner Trap” by Steven Shaw in Principal Leadership, February 2010 (Vol. 10, #6, p. 12-16), no e-link available

Source

Slow Learners an Academic Guide

Great Teacher Handouts on Supporting Slow Learners in the classroom

Slow Learner PowerPoint

Slow Learner’s in the context of BLOOM’S PowerPoint

Grade Retention and Borderline Intelligence: The Social–Emotional Cost

Slow Learner FAQ

What’s the Difference — Slow Learner or Learning Disabled?

Slow Learners: Role of Teachers and Guardians in Honing their Hidden Skills

STRATEGIES FOR “SLOW LEARNERS”

Teacher Step By Step Strategies (Slow Learners)

Staff Development for Teaching Slow Learners