“Turn and Talks” in the Classroom Can Yield Many Positive Outcomes For Your Students

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Procedures

Turn and Talk – Procedures and Routines

How to Use

1. Question

Pose a question or prompt for students to discuss and tell them how much time they will have. A one-to-two minute discussion is most productive.

2. Turn

Have students turn to a specific partner. Pair students using Eyeball Partners, Shoulder Partners, or Clock Partners (see variations below). Partner assignments should be set up beforehand so that students can quickly and easily pair up.

3. Talk

Set a timer for the allotted time, and have students begin discussing the assigned question or prompt. When time is up, ask partners to share out thoughts and ideas from their discussion.

When to Use

Use Turn and Talk at any time during a lesson to encourage accountable talk:

  • As a warm-up activity to discuss previous lesson or homework assignment
  • After five to seven minutes of oral or written input, to help student process what they have just heard or read
  • During class discussions as a way for students to discuss ideas before sharing them with the class
  • As a closing activity so that students can review what was learned in the lesson
  • As a clarification tool for a complex problem or new guiding question posed by the teacher

Variations

Eyeball Partners

When students are seated at tables or in groups, “eyeball partners” are students who are facing in front of each other.

Shoulder Partners

When students are seated at tables or in groups, “shoulder partners” are students who are seated next to each other. This may also be done when students are seated in rows.

Clock Partners

Using a clock template, have students “make appointments” with four other classmates, one for 12 o’clock, one for 3 o’clock, one for 6 o’clock, and one for 9 o’clock. Partners may not be repeated. When ready to use partners, simply say “Work with your [choose one of the times] partner.” In Primary Grades PK-1, partners should be assigned by the teacher.

Source

Articles

Turn and Talk: One Powerful Practice So Many Uses by Lucy West & Antonia Cameron

6 Easy Ways to Improve Turn & Talk for Student Language Development

Turn and Talk from HAMERAY PUBLISHING

Why Talk Is Important in Classrooms- from Content-Area Conversations by Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey, and Carol Rothenberg

Structured Student Talk  From El Achieve

Turn and Talk Tips and Examples

Keep Your Students Engaged with “Turn and Talk” by RACHEL LYNETTE

I'm sure that by now in your teaching career, you've heard of Think, Pair, Share. But have you heard of Turn and Talk? This is very similar to Think, Pair, Share, but its foundation is in brain-based research. Sally of Elementary Matters shares all about Turn and Talk in this guest post and shares a FREE poster that you can hang up in your classroom. Click through to read more and download the freebie!

TURN AND TALK PROMPTS
Please note that the list below is not meant to be a comprehensive list of Turn and Talk prompts, but simply a starter guide to get you thinking about how you can use this tool in your classroom.
READING
1. Which character did you identify most with in the book and why?
2. What do you predict will happen in the next chapter?
3. What did you visualize when you read this chapter?
4. Describe a connection you made while reading this piece. It can be a text-to-text, text-to-self, or text-to-world connection.
5. What is something the main character did that surprised you?
6. Choose a word that was unfamiliar to you when you first read this book. Explain to your partner how you determined the meaning of the word.
7. What do you think is the theme of the story?
8. Do you agree with the character’s actions? Why or why not?
9. After reading this book, what is one question you would want to ask the author?
10. What do you think the author’s purpose was for writing this story?

MATH
1. Explain the strategy you used to solve this problem, and why you chose it.
2. Share three ways we use math in our everyday lives.
3. Analyze this problem and see if you can find the error the student made while solving it. Discuss with your partner how you would correct the error.
4. Do you agree or disagree with how I just solved this problem? Defend your answer.
5. What would be the next step?
6. Choose one math tool / manipulative we have used this year, and explain to your partner what it can be used for.
7. Which image / shape / pattern does not belong in this set of 4? Explain your thinking.
8. What information do you still need in order to solve this problem?
9. I can check my answer by……
10. I know my answer is reasonable because…
http://www.APLearning.com

SCIENCE
1. The physical properties of ___________ and ____________ are similar because ___________________.
2. What do you predict will happen as we complete this investigation?
3. Choose one science safety tool and explain to your partner how to use it and why it is important.
4. Explain what you observed during the experiment, and why you think this happened.
5. Explain the process of how matter can change from one state to another.
6. Choose a plant or animal we have studied, and explain how it is adapted to thrive in its particular environment.
7. Take turns describing to each other the stages of the ___________’s life cycle.
8. A change we could make to our design is _______________. I think this will impact it by __________________.
9. Choose one environmental change, and explain to your partner how it impacts the environment.
10. How can we represent the data we have collected from this experiment?

SOCIAL STUDIES
1. Which invention do you think had the greatest impact on our society and why?
2. Do you think it is important to learn about the history of our country? Defend your answer.
3. Think about the two cultures we have studied. Describe one way in which they are similar and one way in which they are different.
4. Describe how ________________ had an impact on society.
5. How can you determine if an online resource is valid?
6. Choose an important feature of a map or globe and explain its significance.
7. Explain how supply and demand effect the price of a good or service.
8. Find an example of one non-fiction text feature in your history textbook, show it to your partner, and explain how it helps you as a reader.
9. What do you think is the most important reason for a group of people to immigrate to another country?
10. Of the 10 amendments in the Bill of Rights, which do you think is most important? Defend your answer.

Source

Anchor Charts

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Building a Relationship with Students to Increase Learning in the Classroom

Articles

5 Tips for Better Relationships With Your Students – NEA

Featured article: Unconditional Positive Regard and Effective School Discipline By Dr. Eric Rossen

The Teacher as Warm Demander by Elizabeth Bondy and Dorene D. Ross

Educator’s Guide to Preventing and Solving Discipline Problems by Mark Boynton and Christine Boynton

The Power of Positive Regard by Jeffrey Benson

Building Positive Teacher-Child Relationships– CSEFEL

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Unconditional Positive Regard 

Carl Rogers described unconditional positive regard (UPR) as love and acceptance that are not dependent upon any particular behaviors. He often used the term “prizing” as shorthand for this feature of a relationship. According to Rogers, prizing is particularly important in the parent-child relationship.

Unconditional Positive Regard 

Carl Rogers described unconditional positive regard (UPR) as love and acceptance that are not dependent upon any particular behaviors. He often used the term “prizing” as shorthand for this feature of a relationship. According to Rogers, prizing is particularly important in the parent-child relationship. Rogers argued that children who are prized by their parents experience a greater sense of congruence, have a better chance to self-actualize, and have are more likely to become fully functioning people than those whose parents raise them under “conditions of worth.”

Unconditional positive regard is also a crucial component of Rogers’ approach to psychotherapy. In fact, along with empathy and genuineness, Rogers asserted that UPR was one of the necessary and sufficient elements for positive psychotherapeutic change. When Rogers described UPR as “necessary,” he communicated that an unconditionally accepting and warm relationship between therapist and client is a prerequisite for therapy to be effective. This assertion is not particularly shocking; most individuals seeing a therapist would probably expect the therapist to have this type of nonjudgmental attitude, and would also probably expect therapy to progress poorly if the therapist was in fact judgmental or conditionally disapproving. When Rogers described UPR as “sufficient,” however, he made a bolder statement. The term “sufficient” suggests that if a therapist provides UPR, along with empathy and genuineness, to a client, the client will improve. No additional techniques or strategies are needed. The therapist need not analyze any dreams, change any thought patterns, punish or reward any behaviors, or offer any interpretations. Instead, in the context of this humanistic therapy relationship, the client will heal himself or herself by growing in a self-actualizing direction, thereby achieving greater congruence. This “necessary and sufficient” claim holds true, according to Rogers, regardless of the diagnosis or severity of the client’s problem.

In addition to the parent-child and therapist-client relationship, Rogers also considered the value of UPR in other relationships and situations. For example, he spent significant time and energy discussing the role that UPR might play in education, and in the teacher-student relationship in particular. Rogers criticized the mainstream American educational system as overly conditional. He believed that educators too often used the threat of poor grades to motivate students, and that students felt prized only when they performed up to educators’ standards (as measured by grades on exams, papers, etc.). He further believed that students may emerge from school having learned some essential academic skills, but also having learned that they are not trustworthy, that they lack internal motivation toward learning, and that only the aspects of themselves that meet particular academic criteria are worthy.

Rogers strongly recommended that teachers and administrators take a more humanistic and less conditional approach to education. He argued that UPR in schools would communicate to children that they are worthy no matter what; as a result, their sense of congruence and their tendency toward self-actualization would remain intact. Students, according to Rogers, should be trusted to a greater extent to follow their own interests and set to their own academic goals. Rather than threatening students to study for exams and write papers in which they have little interest, prize them wholly and allow them greater freedom to choose that which they want to pursue. Advocates of Rogers’ humanistic approach to education argue that it would enhance students’ self-worth, which in turn may preclude many of the psychological and social problems that children encounter. Critics of Rogers’ humanistic approach to education argue that without conditions of worth based on academic achievement, students would have no provocation to learn, and would demonstrate lethargy rather than self-motivation.

Andrew M. Pomerantz, Ph. D.

 

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Turn taking / Listening at School (Elementary)

“Be a good listener, your ears will never get you in trouble.” – Frank Tyger

“If speaking is silver, then listening is gold.” — Turkish saying

“I think the one lesson I have learned is that there is no substitute for paying attention.” — Diane Sawyer, newscaster

“One of the most sincere forms of respect is actually listening to what another has to say.” — Bryant McGill, author

turn-taking

Turn taking is a social skill that can take time to develop in young school aged children. By providing different opportunities to practice the skill the student in time will be more adept at using those skills in a social setting with peers and adults. This post will show some ideas for promoting Turn Taking.

TURN TAKING is a life skill necessary for social success in all environments. TURN TAKING is not a skill that develops naturally for many children. Many children need to be taught TURN TAKING skills and offered many opportunities to practice. Teaching TURN TAKING involves many skills such as: 1) a social understanding of why we share; 2) self-regulation skills; 3) what to do when I am waiting; and, 4) knowing when to take a turn. By preparing a child to learn about TURN TAKING you are setting them up for successful play with peers.

Source:HOW TO TEACH: “Turn Taking”

Social Stories

In the Classroom 

PREZI on Sharing and Turn Taking

Taking Turns at Circle (Word Document)

Activities

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Read: My Mouth is a Volcano by Julia Cook, (2005)

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Use this lesson to talk about blurting and interrupting.

Lesson Plan: Specific Skill: I Can Listen Attentively

Active Listening (for grades 3-6)

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Classroom Strategies

Using a Talking Stick

This is a method of enforcing turn-taking in conversation which is part of Native American lore and tradition.  Making simple Talking Sticks and using them can provide a fun and useful series of social skills lessons for young people on the autism spectrum.

Videos

 

Visuals

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Positive words and intentions are crucial in building a thriving learning community.

“Language actually shapes thoughts, feelings, and experiences.  It produces fundamentally new forms of behavior.”                -Lev Vygotsky

Before you continue reading this post take a minute to read this article: The Power of Our Words by Paula Denton.

Example from the book:

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Laughter

Using Humor in the Classroom Laughter has the power to fuel engagement and help students learn By Robert McNeely

Choice

Classroom of Choice by Jonathan C. Erwin Chapter 4. Power in the Classroom: Creating the Environment

Empathy

Building Empathy in Classrooms and Schools

Body Language

Good Body Language Improves Classroom Management Successful Teachers Blend both Verbal and Nonverbal Communication

Teacher Relationships

Improving Students’ Relationships with Teachers to Provide Essential Supports for Learning Positive relationships can also help a student develop socially Sara Rimm-Kaufman, PhD, and Lia Sandilos, PhD, University of Virginia

Growth Mindset – Reframing Negative Self Talk

A growth mindset is a belief that your most basic abilities can be nurtured and developed though dedication and hard work. Talent is just the starting point. People with a positive growth mindset create a love of learning that is vital for doing great things. A positive growth mindset will also lend itself to being resilient in the face of setbacks. Failures are seen as learning opportunities to people with a positive growth mindset.

Verses

A fixed mindset is a belief that your basic qualities, like intelligence or talent, are fixed traits. People with a fixed mindset believe that talent makes people successful. Effort is secondary to brains and talent.

4 Ways to Encourage a Growth Mindset in the Classroom

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Programs that support developing positive learning environments

A promising program out of Yale University that helps supports Developing Classroom Culture is called RULER.

RULER is an evidence-based approach for integrating social and emotional learning into schools. RULER applies “hard science” to the teaching of what have historically been called “soft skills.” RULER teaches the skills of emotional intelligence — those associated with recognizing, understanding, labeling, expressing, and regulating emotion. Decades of research show that these skills are essential to effective teaching and learning, sound decision making, physical and mental health, and success in school and beyond.

The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) helps build the following skills:

Recognizing: Recognize the emotion of either yourself or of someone else in order to react in the most socially appropriate manner to help resolve the issue. This includes picking up on cues such as facial expression, words, tone, behavior, and one’s own thoughts.

Understanding:  Emotions are often triggered by events that bring upon specific emotions and thoughts. When a child understands more about what is triggering specific emotions, they are more likely to be less reactive. Understanding of emotions helps young children see how emotions affect decisions, behavior and goals. Problem-solving skills are needed to learn how to cope, as well as develop empathy towards others.

Labeling: Labeling emotions is nothing more than connecting different scenarios with a specific emotions, and descriptive words. For example, a child with emotional literacy may use the words inspired, enthusiastic, and thrilled.

Expressing: practicing control, timing, and expression of emotions in appropriate ways helps with communication development for healthy relationships. Students who have difficulties in both labeling and expression tend to not have successful relationships.

Regulating Emotions: Regulation during emotional experiences means organizing and managing the thoughts, emotions and behavior that often develop. Successfully regulated emotions are often prevented, reduced, initiated, maintained, or enhanced (PRIME). Source

PBIS

Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a proactive approach to establishing the behavioral supports and social culture and needed for all students in a school to achieve social, emotional and academic success. Attention is focused on creating and sustaining primary (school-wide), secondary (classroom), and tertiary (individual) systems of support that improve lifestyle results (personal, health, social, family, work, recreation) for all youth by making targeted misbehavior less effective, efficient, and relevant, and desired behavior more functional.

Practical Strategies for Common Classroom Issues

Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom: Facilitating Behaviorally Inclusive Learning Environments Terrance M. Scott, Kristy Lee Park, Jessica Swain-Bradway & Eric Landers

Accommodations for Kids with ADHD

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Active and inattentive students can be difficult to support in the classroom. In my experience the number one intervention is developing a trusting student/ teacher relationship. The second most successful intervention is high quality instruction that is predictable and measured. Below are some links to help with the process.

First Read this:

Helping the Student With ADHD in the Classroom: Information for Teachers-

By Stephen E. Brock, NCSP, CSU, Sacramento

ADHD Accommodations (Cheat Sheets)

ADHD Accommodations (1 page)

Accommodating Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

ADHD Classroom (Mind Set)

Classroom Accommodations for Children with ADHD Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D

Teaching Students with ADHD Helping Students with Attention Deficit Disorder Succeed at School

Classroom Interventions for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Nice and Succinct)

20 Tips for Helping Kids with ADHD Succeed in School by Dr. Hallowell

“Most teachers and adults could benefit from pretending that all kids in their class have ADHD – what is good for kids with ADHD is good for all kids.” – Dr. Hallowell

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Parents Reading

ADHD Parenting Tips Helping Your Child or Teen with Attention Deficit Disorder

ADHD Parents Medication Guide

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Anger management tools

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Anger – Article

“Anger is the deepest form of compassion,” poet and philosopher David Whyte wrote in reclaiming the unseen dimensions of everyday words. “The internal living flame of anger always illuminates what we belong to, what we wish to protect and what we are willing to hazard ourselves for.” Anyone who has ever flared with anger at a loved one has brushed with this strange dissonance and knows it to be true on a most primal level. And yet we continue to judge — and especially to self-judge — only one side of anger, its destructive face, neglecting its paradoxical but profound constructive function as a mobilizing agent for our values. Source

Grades K-5

Counseling Blog with a lot of coping strategies for anger                        

(Click this site it has awesome resources)

Zones of Regulation is a Great system to integrate into your classroom. (Paid for Materials) (Free share materials) (Tablet APP)

Therapy worksheets related to Anger for Children

Visuals for the classroom(K-1)  Solution KIT

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Tucker Turtle Takes Time to Tuck and Think Slide Show , PPT

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Angry Bird Lessons

Angry Bird Posters

Angry Bird Student Book

Grades 6-12

PSYCHOLOGY TOOLS COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT) WORKSHEETS FOR ANGER MANAGEMENT

Therapy worksheets related to Anger

Anger Worksheets

ANGER MANAGEMENT WORKBOOK

Anger Mapping- UNDERSTANDING AND REDUCING ANGRY FEELINGS

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Scaling is a good strategy to help with perspective taking.

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Classroom Behavior – Big Ideas

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Classroom Behavior is a big topic, but I think that it is one that needs to be reflected upon even if your classroom is running well.

Big reads

Classroom Management & Culture

Case Studies in Educational Psychology  by John W. Santrock

Starting Small Teaching Tolerance in Preschool and the Early Grades

Great PowerPoints

Teaching Expectations and Reinforcement Systems

 

Establishing and implementing classroom rules

Jones and Jones stated that effective, general rules in a classroom should pertain to (a) health and safety (e.g., “Walk in the classroom, hallways, cafeteria.”), (b) property loss and damage (e.g., “Respect others’ personal property and touch it only with the person’s permission.”), (c) legitimate educational purpose (e.g., “Be on time for class and with all assignments.”), and (d) disruption of the learning process (e.g., “Ask for permission to speak before saying anything in the classroom.”).4 The following are characteristics of good classroom rules regardless of teaching level:

The fewer, the better.
It is wise to keep the number of rules to a minimum. For primary-level students, three or four rules should suffice; for older adolescents, as many as five or six may be necessary. There are ways to cover many activities in a rule by composing it in a broad fashion. Instead of limiting the rule to only the classroom (e.g., “Walk at all times in the classroom.”), a broader rule could state, “Always walk in the classroom, hallways, and cafeteria.”).
Use simple language.
There is no need to write elaborate rules with complex language. Just be direct and simple (e.g., “Raise your hand and wait for the teacher to call on you before speaking.”). If anything, direct, simple language allows for students to remember the rules more easily.
Use a positive voice.
If at all possible, write the rules in a positive format and tone. Try to avoid, “You shall not talk in the classroom without teacher permission,” by stating the same rule as, “Ask for permission to speak before saying anything in the classroom.”
Special context, special rules.
Different rules can be used for special situations and learning stations in the same classroom environment. Rules for using computers in a classroom (e.g., “Always use headphones when listening to music on the computer.”) can be made very specific to that activity and station only.
Create an effective display.
Rules need to be prominently displayed in the classroom or in a special activity area. When students are first learning the rules in the beginning of the school term they need to be bombarded and reminded of them as much as possible. Put them on a bulletin board, duplicate them on the classroom whiteboard, write them on a handout to distribute to class members, and place them in special activity areas (e.g., computer stations). I once witnessed a teacher hanging each classroom rule from the ceiling on both sides of long poster board for all to see in any section of the room. (Now that’s displaying them prominently!)