Students with Emotional Disturbance in the regular education classroom can be a challenge to support. I have collected some good articles and tools in this post as a way to adopt the right mindset to prepare to differentiate to this special population. My best advice in finding the most success is to stay curious and build relationships with; the student, the parents, the special education team.
Start here and read this article from National Dissemination for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) …print and revisit: Teaching Students with Emotional Disturbances: 8 Tips for Teachers
Then if you like lists to remind and/ or inform your practice this is a helpful link from DoLearn: ED Strategies
Reasons why Emotional Disturbance occurs:
ASCD has some good insights from this article and below is a good chart to consider for your students showing behaviors in your classroom.
What Emotional Disturbance looks like-
Some emotional problems you can see—others you cannot. If a student has internalized her emotional problems, for example, she may become withdrawn or depressed, and the teacher may not be aware of the student’s distress. If a student has externalized emotional problems, however, the teacher is likely to know. This student puts emotions on display and may become disruptive, even antagonistic, in class. It’s important, therefore, that teachers know the early warning signs for both kinds of emotional problems.
|A student may have internalized emotional problems if he
- Appears isolated from peers.
- Seems overly dependent on others.
- Is moody.
- Exhibits feelings of helplessness.
- Shows an interest in cults.
- Has an inordinate attraction to fantasy.
- Is apathetic.
- Is a bully victim.
- Is frequently absent because of illness.
- Cries inappropriately and too often.
- Abuses himself.
|A student may have externalized emotional problems if she
- Becomes a chronic discipline problem.
- Exhibits a lack of empathy or compassion.
- Has temper tantrums.
- Is truant often.
- Experiences poor academic performance.
- Has conflicts with authority figures.
- Bullies others.
- Damages the property of others.
- Becomes noncompliant.
- Becomes impulsive.
- Becomes aggressive.
Source: Compiled from Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., & Bocian, K. (1996). “Behavioral earthquakes”: Low-frequency salient behavioral events that differentiate students at risk of behavior disorders. Behavioral Disorders 21(4), 277–292.
Behavior Intervention Plans can help to proactively address the issues that are happening in your classroom. Engage with your School Psychologist in fully understanding the plan and don’t hesitate to ask for clarity and/ or strategies that may be challenging to implement in your particular classroom.
Working at a High School I occasionally have to team with our school nurse to talk to students about hygiene. Here are some of the materials I use.
PERSONAL CARE HEALTH SOCIAL SKILLS AND SAFETY (Manual) -Great Resource*
- The Healthy Bodies Toolkits (Vanderbilt University) Boy and Girl
Hygiene in Adolescents with ASD
Daily Personal Care Checklist
Before we go out- Checklist
Shower Routine Visual
Deodorant Social Story
Old School -Things haven’t really changed too much.
What is Puberty? Decoding Puberty in Girls
All About Boys Puberty
Inside Puberty: What Are the Stages of Puberty?
While recent research has pointed to the lack of evidence to support that homework has a positive influence on learning, many of us parents are still working to support homework time for our students. Here are some resources to support the process.
Homework: A Concern for the Whole Family Check out the handy checklist on page 24.
Homework: A Guide for Parents- NASP
Parent Tip Sheet -Elementary
Homework Tips for Parents (ADHD)
Top Ten Homework Tips for Parents of Children with Learning Disabilities Super Duper
Parent and Student Tip Sheets and Homework Charts
I just took my mandated reporter training. In an effort to keep kids safe I am posting these links to promote child safety.
The CA Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law: Issues and Answers for Mandatory Reporters
California Department of Social Services (CDSS)
Department of Justice Form SS 8572 –This is the link to the reporting form.
Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act (CANRA)
California Education Code 44807, 49000 and 49001
Mandated Reporter Course Sources PDF
Recognizing Child Abuse: What Parents Should Know– Good resource for parents.
- 4.1 million child maltreatment referral reports received.1
- Child abuse reports involved 7.5 million children.1
- 3.2 million children received prevention & post-response services.1
- 142,301 children received foster care services.1
- 74.9% of victims are neglected.1
- 18.3% of victims are physically abused.1
- 8.6% of victims are sexually abused.1
- 7.1% of victims are psychologically maltreated.1
- Highest rate of child abuse in children under age one (25.3% per 1,000).1
- Annual estimate: 1,720 children died from abuse and neglect in 2017.1,
- Almost five children die every day from child abuse.1,2
- Seventy-two (71.8%) percent of all child fatalities were younger than 3 years old.1
- 80.1% of child fatalities involve at least one parent.1
- Of the children who died, 75.4% suffered neglect.1
- Of the children who died, 41.6% suffered physical abuseeither exclusively or in combination with another maltreatment type.1
- 49.6% of children who die from child abuse are under one year.1
- Boys had a higher child fatality rate than girls (2.68 boys & 2.02 girls per 100,000)1
- Almost 65,000 children are sexually abused.1
- More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator.6
- Estimated that between 50-60% of maltreatment fatalities are not recorded on death certificates.5
- Child abuse crosses all socioeconomic and educational levels, religions, ethnic and cultural groups.1
Who abused and neglected children?
- 83.4% (More than four-fifths) of perpetrators were between the ages of 18 and 44 years.1
- 54.1% (More than one-half) of perpetrators were women, 45.0 % of perpetrators were men, and .09 % were of unknown sex.1
CONSEQUENCES & RISK FACTORS
- Abused children are 25% more likely to experience teen pregnancy.6
- Abused teens are more likely to engage in sexual risk taking behaviors, putting them at greater risk for STDs.6
- About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.7
- In at least one study, about 80% of 21 year olds that were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder.13
- The financial cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States is estimated at $585 billion.8
- Adverse Childhood Experiences
- Child Maltreatment 2017. Published: January 2019. An office of the Administration for Children & Families, a division of U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. This report presents national data about child abuse and neglect known to child protective services agencies in the United States during federal fiscal year 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/cm2017.pdf
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. (2013). Child Maltreatment 2012. Available from: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment
- United States Government Accountability Office, 2011. Child maltreatment: strengthening national data on child fatalities could aid in prevention (GAO-11-599). Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11599.pdf
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth and Families Children’s Bureau. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2011: Statistics and Interventions. Retrieved from: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/fatality.pdf
- Snyder, Howard, N. (2000, July). Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement: victim, incident, and offender characteristics. Retrieved from: https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/saycrle.pdf
- Long – Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm
- Fang, X., et al. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect (2012), doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.10.006 Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213411003140
- Harlow, C. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. (1999).Prior abuse reported by inmates and probationers (NCJ 172879) Retrieved from: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/parip.pdf
- Swan, N. (1998). Exploring the role of child abuse on later drug abuse: Researchers face broad gaps in information. NIDA Notes, 13(2). Retrieved from the National Institute on Drug Abuse website: www.nida.nih.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol13N2/exploring.html
- Every Child Matters Education Fund. (2012). We can do better: Child abuse deaths in America (3rd ed.). Retrieved from: http://www.everychildmatters.org/storage/documents/pdf/reports/can_report_august2012_final.pdf
- Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, Children’s Bureau. Goldman, J., Salus, M. K., Wolcott, D., Kennedy, K. Y. (2003) A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice, Chapter 5, Retrieved from: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/foundation/
- Wilson, E., Dolan, M., Smith, K., Casanueva, C., & Ringeisen, H. (2012). NSCAW Child Well-Being Spotlight: Adolescents with a History of Maltreatment Have Unique Service Needs That May Affect Their Transition to Adulthood. OPRE Report #2012-49, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/youth_spotlight_v7.pdf
- Amy B. Silverman, Helen Z. Reinherz, Rose M. Giaconia, The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: A longitudinal community study, Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 20, Issue 8, August 1996, Pages 709-723. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0145213496000592
- U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health, Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743691/
“The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing.” — Albert Einstein
I was thinking the other day, “What makes schooling more personalized for a student?” and I thought about my time with students and it was definitely the hook of curiosity. The world is a fascinating place and learning can become really exciting with the priming students wonder of a topic.
Introduction: How to Cultivate the Curiosity Classroom -ASCD Article
Why is inquiry important for student learning? Curiosity Cultivator
5 Learning Strategies That Make Students Curious
10 Strategies To Promote Curiosity In Learning
Curiosity: It Helps Us Learn, But Why?
THE MIND THAT OPENS TO A NEW IDEA NEVER RETURNS TO ITS ORIGINAL SIZE.
RESEARCH IS FORMALIZED CURIOSITY. IT IS POKING AND PRYING WITH A PURPOSE.
Zora Neale Hurston
ALL KNOWLEDGE IS CONNECTED TO ALL OTHER KNOWLEDGE. THE FUN IS IN MAKING THE CONNECTIONS.
THE POWER TO QUESTION IS THE BASIS OF ALL HUMAN PROGRESS.
PROGRESS IS BORN OF DOUBT AND INQUIRY.
Robert G. Ingersoll
NEVER BE LIMITED BY OTHER PEOPLE’S LIMITED IMAGINATIONS.
SKEPTICISM IS THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS TRUTH.
MAKE THE MOST OF YOURSELF BY FANNING THE TINY, INNER SPARKS OF POSSIBILITY INTO FLAMES OF ACHIEVEMENT.
WE MUST DARE TO THINK ABOUT ‘UNTHINKABLE THINGS’ BECAUSE WHEN THINGS BECOME ‘UNTHINKABLE’, THINKING STOPS AND ACTION BECOMES MINDLESS.
J. William Fulbright
IT IS A NARROW MIND WHICH CANNOT LOOK AT A SUBJECT FROM VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW.
IT WOULD BE BETTER FOR US TO HAVE SOME DOUBTS IN AN HONEST PURSUIT OF TRUTH, THAN IT WOULD BE FOR US TO BE CERTAIN ABOUT SOMETHING THAT WAS NOT TRUE.
A MAP DOES NOT JUST CHART, IT UNLOCKS AND FORMULATES MEANING; IT FORMS BRIDGES BETWEEN HERE AND THERE, BETWEEN DISPARATE IDEAS THAT WE DID NOT KNOW WERE PREVIOUSLY CONNECTED.
FROM THE SMALLEST NECESSITY TO THE HIGHEST RELIGIOUS ABSTRACTION, FROM THE WHEEL TO THE SKYSCRAPER, EVERYTHING WE ARE AND EVERYTHING WE HAVE COMES FROM ONE ATTRIBUTE OF MAN – THE FUNCTION OF HIS REASONING MIND.
MILLIONS SAW THE APPLE FALL, BUT NEWTON ASKED WHY.
CURIOSITY IS A WILLING, A PROUD, AND EAGER CONFESSION OF IGNORANCE.
JUDGE A MAN BY HIS QUESTIONS RATHER THAN BY HIS ANSWERS.
THE FOCUS IS WHAT IS RIGHT BEFORE YOU–TO GIVE IT YOUR BEST. IT SOWS THE SEEDS OF TOMORROW.
CURIOSITY IS THE WICK IN THE CANDLE OF LEARNING.
William Arthur Ward
SCIENCE IS FUN. SCIENCE IS CURIOSITY. WE ALL HAVE NATURAL CURIOSITY. SCIENCE IS A PROCESS OF INVESTIGATING. IT’S POSING QUESTIONS AND COMING UP WITH A METHOD. IT’S DELVING IN.
DON’T LOOK AT YOUR FEET TO SEE IF YOU ARE DOING IT RIGHT. JUST DANCE.
CURIOSITY WILL CONQUER FEAR EVEN MORE THAN BRAVERY WILL.
THERE ARE NO FOOLISH QUESTIONS, AND NO MAN BECOMES A FOOL UNTIL HE HAS STOPPED ASKING QUESTIONS.
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
I THINK, AT A CHILD’S BIRTH, IF A MOTHER COULD ASK A FAIRY GODMOTHER TO ENDOW IT WITH THE MOST USEFUL GIFT, THAT GIFT WOULD BE CURIOSITY.
BEWARE OF MONOTONY; IT’S THE MOTHER OF ALL THE DEADLY SINS.
KNOWING THE ANSWERS WILL HELP YOU IN SCHOOL. KNOWING HOW TO QUESTION WILL HELP YOU IN LIFE.
UCLA PEERS ® CLINIC
The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS®) was originally developed at UCLA by Dr. Elizabeth Laugeson, Founder and Director of the UCLA PEERS® Clinic, and Dr. Fred Frankel in 2005 and has expanded to locations across the United States and the world. PEERS® is a manualized, social skills training intervention for youth with social challenges. It has a strong evidence-base for use with adolescents and young adults with an autism spectrum disorder but is also appropriate for preschoolers, adolescents, and young adults with ADHD, anxiety, depression, and other socioemotional problems.
- PEERS® for Adolescents: We offer a 16-week evidence-based social skills intervention for motivated adolescents in middle school or high school who are interested in learning ways to help them make and keep friends. For more information, please visit the PEERS® for Adolescents section.
- PEERS® for Young Adults: We offer a 16-week evidence-based social skills intervention for motivated young adults (18-35 years old) who are interested in learning ways to help them make and keep friends, and to develop romantic relationships. For more information, please visit the PEERS® for Young Adults section.
- PEERS® for Preschoolers: We offer a 16-week evidence-based social skills intervention for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder between 4 to 6 years of age who have difficulty in their peer interactions and friendships. For more information, please visit the PEERS® for Preschoolers section.
Director: Elizabeth Laugeson, Psy.D.
Site: Semel Institute/NPI
From the Director Dr. Laugeson-
Role play videos for social skills.
Starting Individual Conversations
Entering Group Conversations
Appropriate Use of Humor
Appropriate Use of Humor
|Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen)
|Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat)
|Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat, explain)
|Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat, explain, say sorry)
|Responding to a disagreement (keep cool, listen, repeat, explain, say sorry, solve the problem)
|Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately)
|Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain)
|Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen)
|Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen, repeat)
|Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen, repeat, tell them what you need)
|Bringing up a disagreement (wait, keep cool, ask to speak privately, explain, listen, repeat, tell them what you need, solve the problem)
Handling Rumors and Gossip
Learning a second language can be difficult on its own. Pair language acquisition with learning in school and it can be downright frustrating to students and families. Colorín Colorado is the premier national website serving educators and families of English language learners (ELLs) in Grades PreK-12. Colorín Colorado has been providing free research-based information, activities, and advice to parents, schools, and communities around the country for more than a decade.
Link- Colorin Colorado