NASP and ASCA call for US policy change to stop separating families at the border

NASP full statement pdf

ASCA Issues Statement Condemning the Separation of Children and Families at U.S. Borders

Write a letter

Urge Congress to End Policies that Separate Families at the Border

Write your elected officials and ask them to urge the Trump Administration to end its policy of separating children from their families at the border.


The Role of Schools in Supporting Traumatized Students

By Eric Rossen and Katherine Cowan

ADEPT (Autism Distance Education Parent Training) Interactive Learning


ADEPT (Autism Distance Education Parent Training) Interactive Learning

An original MIND Institute/CEDD 10-lesson interactive, self-paced, online learning module providing parents with tools and training to more effectively teach their child with autism and other related neurodevelopmental disorders functional skills using applied behavior analysis (ABA) techniques.



Autism Distance Education Parent Training (ADEPT) PPT Presented By: Patricia Schetter, MA, BCBA

Fountas & Pinnell Reading Levels

Fountas & Pinnell reading levels (commonly referred to as “Fountas & Pinnell”) are a system of reading levels developed by Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell to support their guided reading method.[1] Reading text is classified according to various parameters, such as word count, number of different words, number of high-frequency words, sentence length, sentence complexity, word repetitions, illustration support, etc. While classification is guided by these parameters, syllable type, an important consideration in beginning reading, is not considered as part of the leveling system. Small books containing a combination of text and illustrations are then provided to educators for each level.[2]

While young children display a wide distribution of reading skills, each level is tentatively associated with a school grade. Some schools adopt target reading levels for their pupils. This is the grade-level equivalence chart recommended by Fountas & Pinnell.[3]

Recommended grade Fountas and Pinnell level
K A, B, C
1 C, D, E, F, G, H, I
2 I, J, K, L, M
3 M, N, O, P
4 P, Q, R, S
5 S, T, U, V
6 V, W, X, Y
7 Y, Z
8 and above Z

Alternative classifications of reading difficulties have been developed by various authors (Reading Recovery levels, DRA levels, Basal Levels, Lexile Levels, etc.).



Fountas and Pinnell Reading Level Characteristics

Instructional Level:  With teaching and support, the child can read the text.

Independent Level:  Text the child can easily read and understand on his/her own.


The Fountas and Pinnell Assessment System in one way our district identifies a student’s reading level.  The assessment provides valuable information about reading accuracy, comprehension, fluency, and more.  This is just one tool used to determine your child’s strengths and weaknesses. They read a combination of fiction and nonfiction books, mistakes are recorded, and questions are asked to gauge understanding of the text.  Students must be able to verbalize their thoughts for this type of assessment.  An expected 1 year growth may be 3-4 levels; therefore, if they are unable to make these gains each year they will have extreme difficulty reaching the grade level expectation.
The assessments are done at…

  • Beginning of the year (August-September)
  • Mid-year (November-December)
  • End of the year (April-May)

The assessment can…

  • Determine your child’s “independent” and “instructional” reading level
    • INDEPENDENT-Read with 95-99% accuracy with satisfactory comprehension
    • INSTRUCTIONAL-Read with 90-94% accuracy with satisfactory comprehension
  • Determine reading placement levels and group students for instruction
  • Identify students who need interventions
  • Assess the outcomes of teaching strategies
  • Document student progress during a school year and over several years
  • Inform parents of progress over a period of time

If your child is reading below grade level at this time, it’s not uncommon for them to score lower on classroom assessments. These levels have been tracked for several years; therefore, it’s unrealistic to think they can catch up to grade level in one year if they begin the year reading several levels below grade level.

The comprehension portion includes 3 types of questions, and students can score from a 1-3 in each area:

  • Within the Text-Retell or summarize the story and identify the problem.
  • Beyond the Text-Indicates your child’s ability to connect to their own experiences with the story and draw conclusions about characters or events.
  • About the Text-Indicates your child’s ability to think about the author’s purpose, style of writing, or how the text is organized. 


  • A self-correction rate of 1:4 means that the student corrects approximately 1 out of every 4 errors made during the reading. If a student has a rate of 1:4 or less, this indicates that he/she is self-monitoring or self-correcting his/her reading.  It lets you know that they are very aware of their reading abilities. 


  • Fluency is how smoothly your child reads with expression and meaning. 

Accuracy Rate

  • This is the percentage of words read correctly or accurately.  An instructional level accuracy rate may fall between 90-100%. 

Grade Level Expectations 5th Grade
Beginning of Year-Level S/T
End of Year-Level V

Anne Arundel County Public School Parents Guide to Guided Reading Levels
The site contains very valuable information regarding your child’s reading level including the characteristics of this level and strategies for helping improve your child’s reading level.  

 F&P Parent Resources F&P Recursos de los Padres
Parent Guide for Levels A and B Guia de padres para los niveles A y B
Parent Guide for Levels C, D, and E Guia de padres para los niveles C, D, y E
Parent Guide for Levels F and G Guia de padres para los niveles F y G
Parent Guide for Level H and I Guia de padres para los niveles H y I
Parent Guide for J and K Guia de padres para los niveles J y K
Parent Guide for Levels L and M Guia de padres para los niveles L 7 M
Parent Guide for Levels N, O, P, and Q Guia de padres para los niveles N, O, P, y Q
Parent Guide for Levels R, S, and T Guia de padres para los niveles R, S, and T
Parent Guide for Levels U and V Guia de padres para los niveles U y V
Parent Guide for Levels W, X, Y, and Z Guia de padres para los niveles W, X, Y, y Z


The Fountas & Pinnell Literacy Continuum, Expanded Edition

A Tool for Assessment, Planning, and Teaching, PreK-8


Hearing Loss in School


The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) explains that hearing loss falls into four subcategories: conductive, sensorineural, mixed and central. These identify the location in the body in which the hearing impairment occurs. Hearing aids and other sound amplifying assistive technologies (AT) often work for students with conductive hearing loss, as their impairments stem from the outer or middle ear. Such does not hold true with sensorineural, mixed and central hearing losses, as these impairments stem from the inner ear, the central nervous system or a combination of the two. Typically, hearing loss is categorized as slight, mild, moderate, severe or profound, depending on how well an individual can hear the frequencies that are commonly associated with speech.

Educational Challenges

Educational obstacles related to hearing impairments stem around communication. A student with a hearing impairment may experience difficulty in:

  • the subjects of grammar, spelling and vocabulary
  • taking notes while listening to lectures
  • participating in classroom discussions
  • watching educational videos
  • presenting oral reports

Underscoring the difficulty that students with hearing impairments may have in presenting oral reports are the potential language development problems linked to hearing impairments. Arizona’s Department of Education’s Parent Information Network notes that, “Since children with hearing impairments are unable to receive some sounds accurately, they often cannot articulate words clearly.”


Hearing Impairment Topic Categories via-

The National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET)

Accommodations Adults with Hearing Impairments
Advocacy Assessment
Assistive Technology Audio/Video Tapes
Books and Publications Causes
Characteristics Classifications
Classroom Management Definition
Diagnosis Frequently Asked Questions
History of the Field Medical Issues/Medication
Organizations Overview
Parent Information Prevalence
Transition Services

Hearing Loss in Children Links via ASHA

Audiologic Treatment/Habilitation

Causes of Hearing Loss in Children

Cochlear Implants

Hearing Aids for Children

Hearing Assistive Technology for Children

Hearing Screening

Ototoxic Medications

Types of Hearing Loss

Types of Tests Used to Evaluate Hearing in Children and Adults


Accessibility Considerations Worksheet For Students with Hearing Loss

Article- The Cascading Impact of Hearing Loss on Access to School Communication Fragmented Hearing -> Effort -> Listening Comprehension -> Fatigue -> Pace of Learning It’s About Access, Not Hearing Loss

Causes of Hearing Loss in Children

How to Read an Audiogram and Determine Degrees of Hearing Loss

Students with Hearing Impairment in the School Setting ASHA Practice Policy documents

The Los Angeles Unified School District’s Position Paper Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services


Ideal Classrooms

Sonoma County’s DHH procedures for deaf and hard of hearing (ZIP file with forms)

SUPPORTING STUDENTS WHO ARE DEAF/HARD OF HEARING IN WI PUBLIC SCHOOLS Information for public school administrators and pupil services personnel about educating students with hearing loss (PPT)

Assistive Technology in the Classroom For Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Assistive Technologies for Individuals Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  (from Gallaudet University)