Hearing Loss in School

audiogram

The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) explains that hearing loss falls into four subcategories: conductive, sensorineural, mixed and central. These identify the location in the body in which the hearing impairment occurs. Hearing aids and other sound amplifying assistive technologies (AT) often work for students with conductive hearing loss, as their impairments stem from the outer or middle ear. Such does not hold true with sensorineural, mixed and central hearing losses, as these impairments stem from the inner ear, the central nervous system or a combination of the two. Typically, hearing loss is categorized as slight, mild, moderate, severe or profound, depending on how well an individual can hear the frequencies that are commonly associated with speech.

Educational Challenges

Educational obstacles related to hearing impairments stem around communication. A student with a hearing impairment may experience difficulty in:

  • the subjects of grammar, spelling and vocabulary
  • taking notes while listening to lectures
  • participating in classroom discussions
  • watching educational videos
  • presenting oral reports

Underscoring the difficulty that students with hearing impairments may have in presenting oral reports are the potential language development problems linked to hearing impairments. Arizona’s Department of Education’s Parent Information Network notes that, “Since children with hearing impairments are unable to receive some sounds accurately, they often cannot articulate words clearly.”

Source

Hearing Impairment Topic Categories via-

The National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET)

Accommodations Adults with Hearing Impairments
Advocacy Assessment
Assistive Technology Audio/Video Tapes
Books and Publications Causes
Characteristics Classifications
Classroom Management Definition
Diagnosis Frequently Asked Questions
History of the Field Medical Issues/Medication
Organizations Overview
Parent Information Prevalence
Transition Services

Hearing Loss in Children Links via ASHA

Audiologic Treatment/Habilitation

Causes of Hearing Loss in Children

Cochlear Implants

Hearing Aids for Children

Hearing Assistive Technology for Children

Hearing Screening

Ototoxic Medications

Types of Hearing Loss

Types of Tests Used to Evaluate Hearing in Children and Adults

Resources

Accessibility Considerations Worksheet For Students with Hearing Loss

Article- The Cascading Impact of Hearing Loss on Access to School Communication Fragmented Hearing -> Effort -> Listening Comprehension -> Fatigue -> Pace of Learning It’s About Access, Not Hearing Loss

Causes of Hearing Loss in Children

How to Read an Audiogram and Determine Degrees of Hearing Loss

Students with Hearing Impairment in the School Setting ASHA Practice Policy documents

The Los Angeles Unified School District’s Position Paper Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services

GUIDE TO EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WHO ARE DEAF OR HARD OF HEARING

Ideal Classrooms

Sonoma County’s DHH procedures for deaf and hard of hearing (ZIP file with forms)

SUPPORTING STUDENTS WHO ARE DEAF/HARD OF HEARING IN WI PUBLIC SCHOOLS Information for public school administrators and pupil services personnel about educating students with hearing loss (PPT)

Assistive Technology in the Classroom For Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Assistive Technologies for Individuals Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  (from Gallaudet University)

IEP/504 CHECKLIST: ACCOMMODATIONS AND MODIFICATIONS FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING (One Sheet Wonder!)

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Influencing Student Self Concept

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Many times in my work as a School Psychologist I see students who are capable of doing the work, but their self-concept as not being a learner gets in the way of success.

Four ideas for teachers to help start students thinking of themselves as competent learners.

  1. Start with what they are doing well at academically. (Be specific and authentic)
  2. Ask the student what might be missing from your instruction that they need to be more successful.
  3. When a student has responded to corrective feedback, praise the student with specifics on how they helped to transform their learning and you are excited to keep watching them grow as a learner.
  4. Connect and talk to your grade level team and also support staff (Principal, Counselor, and School Psychologist) to get more ideas and tools to support your student in need.

Articles

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Adolescents (NASP)

Understanding and Fostering Achievement Motivation (NASP)

Student Self Esteem and the School System: Perceptions and Implications

Dr. Ken Shore’s Classroom Problem Solver -The Student With Low Self-Esteem

Self-concept and School Performance – UCLA

SELF-BELIEFS AND SCHOOL SUCCESS: SELF-EFFICACY, SELF-CONCEPT, AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT

Ideas to support students

Characteristic How to support
Sense of security
  • Maintain a safe and healthy learning environment by following safety policies and procedures.
  • Show all children you care about their well-being by talking to them each day and learning about their lives.
  • Be consistent and follow through on your promises.
Sense of belonging
  • Create a community atmosphere.
  • Celebrate all children as individuals.
  • Implement a zero-tolerance policy on bullying, and promote kindness and character education.
Sense of purpose, responsibility and contribution
  • Give children responsibilities in the environment.
  • Ask for input from children when creating activity plans and setting themes.
Sense of personal competence and pride
  • Give children opportunities for success.
  • Have activities that are varied in levels of difficulty so that children can be challenged in a safe way.
Sense of trust
  • Gain the trust of children by creating an atmosphere based on respect and kindness.
  • Set boundaries that give children opportunities for safe risk taking.
  • Be consistent and follow through on your promises.
Sense of making real choices and decisions
  • Give children the opportunity to choose their activities, field trips, etc. Make them feel like their input and voice matters by taking their suggestions seriously and using them to develop activity plans.
Sense of self-discipline and self-control
  • Use positive guidance methods that support school-age children and their ability to regulate their own behavior.
  • Help children gain self-control by teaching them coping techniques.
Sense of encouragement, support and reward
  • Provide guidance, encouragement, feedback and praise when children are working hard towards any goal (big or small).
Sense of accepting mistakes and failures
  • Turn mistakes, setbacks or failures into learning opportunities by talking to children about what happened. Discuss with them the choices, steps or decisions that could have changed the outcome.
  • Always talk about how a child would do something differently in the future. This helps them to apply their current situation to future events.
Sense of family self-esteem
  • Families are a child’s first and most important caregiver, teacher and advocate. Children need to feel comfortable, loved and safe within their family unit.
  • Work with families to support their needs.

Source: American Academy of Pediatrics (2015). Caring for Your School-Age Child: Ages 5 to 12. Available at:https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/Pages/Helping-Your-Child-Develop-A-Healthy-Sense-of-Self-Esteem.aspx

Source:  https://www.virtuallabschool.org/school-age/self-culture/lesson-2

Course work

Complete Lesson on Building self-concept of school aged children

Video

Caregivers give their own examples on how to promote positive self-concept in children Video

Quick Measure

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Sotos Syndrome

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Sotos Syndrome is also known as cerebral gigantism. It is a condition that occurs due to genetic reasons which leads to having physical overgrowth upon the first years of their life and having a head and facial appearance that are distinctive. The rapid physical overgrowth goes along with the delay of social, language, cognitive and motor development as well as the retardation of the mentality with ranges from mild to severe form.

Basics

Parent Guide-Original article written by Bridget Veitch (updated by Simon Lane)

Family Information Leaflet

Parent Support Group

Organized in 1988, the Sotos syndrome Support Association (SSSA) is made up of families, physicians, genetic counselors, and health care agencies throughout the United States and the world. The SSSA is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization which is incorporated in the state of Missouri and run completely by volunteers.

The SSSA is a Member of the National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD).

Other Groups

Email Community at Yahoo Groups

Sotos Syndrome Support Association of Canada

A Support Group for Sotos Syndrome in Australia

Sotos Syndrome Support Association of Finland.

The Arc

The Danish Association for Sotos Syndrome

Sotos Association – L’Eveil – France

Asociacion Sotos – Spain

ASSI Gulliver – Italy

Child Growth Foundation – UK

Videos

YouTube Video on the Basics of Sotos Syndrome

Sotos Syndrome- Longer more complete overview

School

School primer- Information on how to serve a student with Sotos Syndrome.

Behavioral and emotional characteristics in children with Sotos syndrome and learning disabilities

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Case Study

Hana Feels Good at School: An Example of Good Teaching Practice in Integrating a Girl with Sotos Syndrome into Primary School

Self regulation for Kindergarteners

Preschool

Read

Developing Self-Regulation in Kindergarten Can We Keep All the Crickets in the Basket?

Building the Brain’s “Air Traffic Control” System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function

Activities

Refocusing

Clapping Exercise
Refocus the class with a series of claps with a certain pattern. The routine with capture student’s attention and create a shared focus. This exercise can be enhanced with stomps, hand movements focused on fine motor skill development, or increasingly complex rules, depending on the students’ age.

Conducting an Orchestra
This activity requires the use of musical instruments. The teacher will have a long stick or ruler that and will act like an orchestra leader, conducting when they will play their instruments. The teacher will wave the conductors wand quickly or slowly and have students play according to her movements. Then, the teacher will have students override their automatic response by indicating that students should play slowly when she waves the conductors wand quickly, and vice versa.

Drum Beats
For this activity, the students will use drum cues from the teacher to do certain body movements. For example, “When the drums plays, clap or stomp” “When the drum plays slowly, walk around the room slowly” “When the drum plays quickly, walk around quickly”. The teacher will then invert the response instructing “When the drum plays quickly, walk around slowly” When the drum plays slowly, walk around quickly.

Elephant Stampede
The class will get to stamp their feet and make lots of noise in this one, but it is all regulated by the teacher. The teacher
Puts a hand to his ear and says “What’s that I hear?” The class responds by saying “Elephant Stampede!” The teacher then says where are the elephants? I can barely hear them!” The class responds with “Far away!” and begins quietly stamping their feet on the floor to mimic the sound of elephants in the distance. The teacher repeats his lines, adjusting for how close the elephants are, until the herd arrives in the classroom. Now the students can make elephant trumpets and stamp their feet as hard as they can until the teacher begins to quiet them down by saying “Oh good, they’re going away!” The children respond by stamping their feet more softly, and continue to respond to the teacher until the elephant herd has left the building.

Relaxation

Sinking Activity
Tell students to lie on their backs on the floor, their arms by their sides and legs uncrossed, and eyes closed. Tell them (in a soft gentle voice) to imagine that their bodies are very heavy and sinking to the floor. Start to mention different body parts: toes, ankles, wrists, necks, eyelids. Then tell them to imagine that they are laying on a warm beach on a sunny day and that they can hear waves, seagulls, then once they have calmed down they may only sit up and open their eyes. This will help students calm their emotional and refocus.

Count to Ten
The teacher stands at the front of the class and raises both hands above her head, spread open and facing the class. The students raise their hands over their heads, fingers spread, and facing the teacher. The teacher begins counting slowly from one to ten, and at ten lowers her hands to her sides. The class follows until everyone is back in the position they started in.

Drawing
Drawing a picture helps to relax children. Try giving your students a prompt! For example, “draw how you feel right now.” This helps children to recognize their emotions whether good or bad and process them in a healthy manner. Part of self regulation is learning to deal with your emotions in the appropriate manners and this activity sets up a calming environment for kids to learn to do this. Aside from processing emotions, drawing helps children and adults process any circumstance and is very calming to the mind!

Emotion Regulation

Breathing Square
Have students decorate a square piece of paper that they then glue to a popsicle stick. Explain that this square is to be used when the student feels overwhelmed or frustrated. The square will be divided up into 4 sections representing 4 different steps they are to follow.
1st step: Breathe in while counting to 4
2nd step: Hold breath for four seconds
3rd step: Breathe out for four seconds
4th step: repeat three times

Emotion Regulation Swing-O-Meter
This craft could accompany a lesson aimed at helping students understand, and therefore control, their emotions Swing-O-Meter.

Faces
A craft that will increase students’ understanding of their own emotions, and create opportunities within the classroom for them to evaluate their emotions. Popsicle faces / Other emotion faces

Paper Plate Emotions
Another craft aimed increasing students’ Emotion Regulation Paper Plate Emotions

How Big Is My Problem Chart
Post a chart in the classroom that is numbered from zero to five, with zero at the bottom and five at the top. Each number will be colored along a gradient staing at green for level one, and moving to red for level five.
Level Five is red, and labelled Emergency” and refers to only true emergencies such as tornadoes or earthquakes. A grimacing frowny face is drawn next to the description.
Level Four is orange and labeled “Gigantic Problem” and describes something that needs immediate attention from a teacher and can’t be fixed by the student such as getting lost or being injured on the playground. A crying forwny face is drawn next to the descrition.
Level Three is yellow and labelled “Big Problem” and describes something that definitely needs the teacher’s attention such as a fight. A “Charlie Brown” frowny face is drawn next to the description.
Level Two is blue and labeled “Medium Problem” and describes something more important that probably needs a response from the teacher such as not feeling well or lost homework. A somber smiley face is drawn next to the description.
Level One is light green and labeled “Little Problem” and describes a bigger issue such as needing to sharpen a pencil or needing to go to the restroom. A normal smiley face is drawn next to the description.
Level Zero is dark green and labeled “No Big Deal” and describes very small issues such as dropping a pen or a shoelace coming untied. A grinning smiley face is drawn next to the description.
Teachers can ask students to describe the problem level when they have a problem and work towards an appropriate response to it. Students should be reminded that they can use this chart for all of their problems in life to help judge what they should do when trouble occurs.

Further Resources:

  • The Emotional Regulation page on the Kid’s Relaxation website provides a multitude of emotion regulation activities for children.
  • This link will connect you to the blog of a psychologist and mother who specializes in play therapy. She shares activities which help children to become more aware of their emotions.

Impulsivity Reduction

Think or Say?
The teacher will create a list of potential student comments to present to the students. Students will then determine if the comment should be said aloud simply thought. Examples:This exercise is aimed at reducing impulsivity and increasing students’ private speech.
“One of your classmates is having a bad hair day, do you think you should tell them, or keep it to yourself?”
“One of your classmates hurt your feelings, but they do not know that they did this, should you talk to them about it kindly or keep it to yourself?”

Private Speech
Encourage the students to partake in private speech. This is when they think about a situation privately and quietly to themselves. Ask them to think about outcomes that could possibly happen if they make certain choices. Encourage them to really think before speaking and acting.

Follow the Birdie
Two children partner up. One picks up an object such as an erasor and holds it eighteen inches in front of the other student’s eyes. The first student then begins to move the object from left to right and back again. The watching student must follow the object with his eyes only and count slowly. If he turns his head to follow the object he loses his turn and must move the object for the otehr student, who has to follow it himself. Alternatives to left and right can be in an arc, or a figure eight, or a circle. The object must move relatively slowly so that the watcher’s eyes are not strained. Whoever lasts the longest during the time period given wins the game.

Response Regulation

Red Light, Purple Light
This game follows the same concept as “red light, green light”. Using different colors for stop and requires children to regulate their responses and adapt to the change. First assign “go” and “stop” to non-sequential colors (ex: purple and orange). Use construction paper as a visual. Alternate the “stop” and “go” colors. Once the children grow accustomed to the colors and their corresponding meanin, make changes so that children must once again regulate their responses. they have developed the appropriate self regulation for this game.

Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders
This activities requires that students override an automatic response, and therefore exhibit self-regulation. Begin by having students point to their head, shoulders, knees and toes. Have students touch each body part in a variety of sequences to get accustomed to the game. Then have students override their automatic response by asking students to point to incongruent body parts. For example, tell students “when I say to touch your head, touch your TOES!!” or “When I say touch your tummy, touch your EARS.”
HTKS YouTube clip

The Freeze Game
This game requires music! The teacher will play the music and then when she stops the music the children must freeze and be still as statues in whatever position the froze in. Then the teacher will play a variety of different music. The children must dance quickly to upbeat and fast songs, and they must dance slowly and gracefully to the slow songs. Then when they have gotten the hang of that, switch it up and have them dance slowly to the fast songs and quickly to the slow songs.

The Color Matching Freeze Game
There will be 4 pieces of construction for each student taped to the ground in a square. The teacher will play music and the students will dance—quickly or slowly according to the music. When the music stops playing, the teacher will hold up a piece of colored construction paper and the students have to sit on the same color on the ground.

Stance Contest
2 students stand and face each other in a specific pose (any pose that they choose). When the teacher says “GO” neither student may move, talk, or change facial expression. The first student to do so loses. The teacher can also come up with the poses if she wants so that they have someone to mimic.

Starting Gun
Students will all line up on a starting line. Instructor says “Ready, Set….” and she might say “go” OR another word that sounds like go OR starts with a “g”. EXAMPLE: green! gorilla! snow! crow! blow! grape! gate! The students that make a false start will have to take a penalty step backwards from the starting line. When instructor does say “go” all will run to the finish line

Freeze Pattern Game
Have students get into a certain pattern (ex: circle, square, heart) and have them standing next to a certain person. Then, signal for students change to a different pattern and stand next to a different person. Use different signals for each pattern.

Mirror Game
Kids partner up and take turns making different faces and their partners must imitate them. For an added challenge, students can imitate one another’s’ body movements.

Red Light, Green Light. One child is the stoplight, the other children are the cars. When the stoplight yells “Green light!” the children run towards the stoplight. When the stoplight yells “Red light!” all the children must stop. If a child doesn’t stop, they must go back to the starting line. A popular variation is to include a “Yellow light!” where children must walk instead of run. Excellent for developing self-regulation skills because children must learn to pay attention, follow directions, and wait their turn.

Simon Says. When Simon says, “Simon says jump!” the children must jump. But if Simon only says, “Jump!” and somebody jumps, that person must sit out for the rest of the game. The last person standing becomes the new Simon. Another excellent game for developing self-regulation because children must listen carefully, pay attention, and follow directions.

Dance Dance Dance
The teacher puts on some fun music and then starts to dance. The students have to follow her routine exactly, no matter how wacky. After 30 seconds or so the teacher calls out a students name and that student begins to make up his own dance moves that the rest of the class must follow. The teacher then becomes the judge. Any student she catches not follow the moves exactly has to sit down. Each student should get thirty seconds or a minute to lead the dance before the teacher calls another student to lead.

Peanut Butter Jelly Game
Have the children sit on the floor in a large circle. Choose one ball to be the peanut butter and the other ball will be the jelly. The object of the game is to always throw the peanut butter ball and roll the jelly ball. On start, the child holding the peanut butter ball throws it to anyone in the circle, and the child holding the jelly ball rolls it to anyone in the circle. Whoever receives the peanut butter ball must continue to throw it to someone else, whereas the jelly ball must be rolled. If a player makes a mistake and rolls the peanut butter ball, throws the jelly ball, of if both balls are in front of one player at the same time, then that player is either out of the game or play starts over. Here for original page

Games and excercises adapted from the following resources:
Theatre Games for Young Performers by Maria C. Novelly
Self-Regulation: The Key to Successful Students? Todd Hoffman
101 pep-up games for children by Allison Bartl

Transitions

(From scholastic.com)

When it is time to line up, use this song to help your class remember what to do. Teach them at the beginning of the year, and then just say “Kindergarten, please line up”, and they will begin to sing the song on their own.

Kindergarten Please Line Up (to the tune of Mary Had a Little Lamb)
Kindergarten, please line up,
please line up,
please line up.
Kindergarten please line up
Get ready for the hall.

I will not shove
I will not push.
Will not talk,
Will not pass.
Will not lag behind the rest,
I’ll line up with my class.

One hand on my hip and lip
hip and lip,
hip and lip,
One hand on my hip and lip
I’m ready for a trip.

Busy Bee Transitions
by Alexandra Ziemann

I made a wand and wrapped yellow curling ribbon up the wand. At the top I have yellow ribbon curls coming down, coiled up black pipe cleaners and jingle bells. During transition times I always take out “Busy Bee” and sing our busy bee song. The students know to get on task because if they are they will be touched on the head by busy bees’ magic (the curly ribbon hanging down). They love that they can participate and have fun all the while staying on task. It’s also very easy to remember to take out the wand because during transitions they are always looking for “busy bee.”
Song:
Oh what fun it is to see
A teeny tiny busy bee
Staying on task
Moving right along
And having fun singing this song!

Walking in the Hallways
by Becky Pate

Kindergarten classes make several transitions from place to place each day. To help my students walk quietly and stay focused forward, we sign the alphabet continually until we reach our destination. We use the American Sign Language form.

We also like to play, Monkey See, Monkey Do while walking in the hallways. We whisper this rhyme: Monkey see, monkey do, can you do what I do?I then do some motions with my hands, arms, and or face for the students to copy. The students stay focused and have fun being silly, but quiet as we walk. Note* this also works in other situations such as times we have to wait in line, or anywhere you have a minute or two to fill.

Source

Lack of Student Motivation

motivation

Motivating all students can be a challenge. This post focuses on the issues and strategies to help support those pupils who need us as teachers to meet them where they are at and help them find their way to motivation.

Reading

Motivating Learning in Young Children- NASP

Motivation Matters: 40% Of High School Students Chronically Disengaged From School

The Motivation Equation: Understanding a Child’s Lack of Effort by Kenneth Barish, Ph.D.

Student Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement

Motivating Students to Learn By: Heather Voke

Classroom Applications of Cognitive Theories of Motivation By: Nona Tollefson

Motivation: The Key to Academic Success By: LD OnLine

How can parents help

Parents are central to student motivation. The beginning of a new school year is very important. Children with LD and ADHD often struggle with change. Parents can help get the year off to a good start.

  1. Provide a warm, accepting home environment.
  2. Give clear directions and feedback.
  3. Create a model for success
  4. Build on the student’s strengths
  5. Relate schoolwork to the student’s interests
  6. Help build a family structure that fosters consistent work towards the goal.
  7. Help the student to have some control over how and when he learns.
  8. Emphasize the child’s progress rather than his or her performance in comparison to the other students in the class or family.
  9. Remember to reinforce the behavior you want.
  10. Use reinforcers wisely. Recall that intrinsic motivation works best. Follow a child’s interests, when possible, rather than spending time building elaborate reward systems Source

Strategies

Students lack interest or motivation – Strategies

Using Motivational Interviewing to Help Your Students by Lisa A. Sheldon

Motivation — Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence – U.S. Department of Education

Motivating Your Students

21 Simple Ideas To Improve Student Motivation

Enhancing Students’ Motivation By Annick M. Brennen

The Student Lacks Confidence that He or She Can Do the Work

What the Research Says: Students who believe that they have the ability to complete a particular academic task (self-efficacy) do better and have higher levels of motivation (Jacobs et al., 2002). Yet students often sabotage their academic performance by engaging in negative self-talk about their abilities and by making faulty attributions to explain poor academic performance (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002). Source

Presentation Six Reasons Why Students Are Unmotivated (and What Teachers Can Do) Jim Wright

Reasons for Lack of Motivation
  Stipek
Why Students Are Not Motivated to Learn
Sternberg
Why Intelligent People Fail
Cognitive-Oriented
Reasons
  • Present activities not seen as related to important goals.
  • Do not have (or believe one does not have) the ability to do present activities or obtain future goals.
  • Distractibility and lack of concentration
  • Spreading oneself too thin or too thick
  • Inability or unwillingness to see the forest for the trees
  • Lack of balance between critical, analytic thinking and creative, synthetic thinking
  • Using the wrong abilities
Affective/Socially-
Oriented Reasons
  • Feelings/emotions about present activities are generally negative.
  • Satisfaction of achieving goals seems in distant future.
  • Personal problems interfere with present activities.
  • Misattribution of blame
  • Fear of failure
  • Excessive self-pity
  • Excessive dependency
  • Wallowing in personal difficulties
  • Too little or too much self-confidence
Conative/Volitionally-
Oriented Reasons
  • Do not have a written list of important goals that define success personally.
  • Believe that present goals or activities are wrong for individual.
  • Important goals conflict with present activities.
  • Failure to initiate
  • Lack of motivation
  • Lack of perservance and perseveration
  • Inability to complete tasks and to follow through
  • Lack of impulse control
  • Inability to translate thought into action
  • Procrastination
  • Lack of product orientation
  • Inability to delay gratification
Environmentally-Oriented Reasons
  • Extrinsic incentives are low.
 

Source

 

References

  • Sternberg, R. (1994). In search of the human mind (395-396). New York: Harcourt Brace.
  • Stipek, D. (1988). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Motivational Interview

“Motivational Interviewing is a collaborative, goal-oriented style of communication with particular attention to the language of change. It is designed to strengthen personal motivation for and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the person’s own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion.” Miller and Rollnick (2012)

“When we think of failure; Failure will be ours.  If we remain undecided; Nothing will ever change.  All we need to do is want to achieve something great and then simply do it.  Never think of failure, for what we think, will come about.”    ~Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

MI Guide

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Motivational Interviewing Strategies and Techniques: Rationales and Examples

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Spelling Strategies

spelling

Spelling can be an area of difficulty for students.

Tried and True

FERNALD METHOD FOR SPELLING INSTRUCTION

Purpose

This spelling method is appropriate for students who have difficulty retaining spelling words and learning to spell exception words. Select words that the student uses frequently in writing.

Procedure

1. Write the word to be learned on the chalkboard or on paper.

2. Pronounce the word clearly and distinctly. Ask the student to look at the word and pronounce the word with emphasis on correct pronunciation.

3. Allow time for the student to study the word to develop an image of it. Depending upon the learning style of the student, different senses are emphasized. A student who learns visually tries to picture the word; a student who learns auditorially says the word; and the student who learns kinesthetically traces the word with a finger. The student studies the word until a picture of the word can be formed in his/her mind.

4. When the student indicates that he/she is sure of the word, erase the word and have the student attempt to write the word from memory.

5. Turn the paper over and ask the student to write the word a second time from memory. In daily writing, any misspelled words are marked out entirely and the correct form is written in its place. When a student asks how to spell a word, the teacher writes the word, while pronouncing it. Students are encouraged to make their own dictionaries from words they have learned or words that are especially difficult for them.

Adapted from: Fernald, G. (1943). Remedial techniques in basic school subjects. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mather, N., & Jaffe, L. (2002). Woodcock-Johnson III: Reports, Recommendations, and Strategies. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Source-Information

Spelling Article Links

Five Guidelines for Learning Spelling and Six Ways for Practicing Spelling By: Susan Jones

How to Study Spelling Words: A Spelling Strategy for Students By: Bruce Murray

Computer Assisted Instruction

Spelling City ($30 USD per year)

Sight words apps

Dolch sight word spelling Game

Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check

1. Write the list words in first column.

2. Begin with one word, LOOK closely at the letters to notice the visual details.

3. SAY it and notice the parts to remember.

4. COVER the word and think about how the word looks (visualize it).

5. Say the word softly. WRITE it from memory in the next column.

6. Uncover and CHECK it with the word in the first column.

7. Repeat the process in the last column.

8. If it is spelled wrong in the last column, add the word to the first column again and repeat the process.

literacy-focus-spelling-strategies

For Teachers

Why Teach Spelling?

Printable Dolch Word Lists K-3

Dolch Sight Word Checklist

An Alternative Spelling Assessment For Students With Learning Disabilities

Assessments

Dolch Sight Word Assessment

Diagnostic Spelling Scale

General Principles of Spelling Instruction Even though research and clinical experience indicate that students with reading problems will have a very difficult time learning to spell, it is also clear that instruction can have a significant impact on the development of reading skills. Even though many poor readers may never fully master spelling skills at the highest levels, most can become good enough spellers to make effective use of technology and other spelling aids. In order to provide effective spelling instruction, teachers must have a firm understanding of the ways in which spelling skills develop as well as a strong knowledge of phonology, phonics, orthography, morphology, syntax, semantics.

COORDINATE SPELLING WITH WORD IDENTIFICATION INSTRUCTION. Teach students to spell (encode) the phonetically regular words they are learning to decode in a structured and systematic manner. Teach spelling rules and patterns in coordination with the decoding skills (e.g., teach the rule for doubling s, f, l & z and the -ck for the /k/ sound when closed syllable words are taught).

TEACH SPELLING DIRECTLY WITH GUIDED PRACTICE. Teach spelling patterns, rules, letter-sound associations directly, one skill at a time, with opportunities for guided practice in numerous settings until the skill is well learned.

TEACH ALL LEVELS OF WORD ANALYSIS. Begin with phonemic awareness and include letter sound associations, spelling patterns, onset-rime, rules and morphology.

DISTINGUISH BETWEEN REGULAR AND IRREGULAR WORDS. Always differentiate between regular and irregular words using clear procedures for practicing each. Regular words may be divided into those that can be spelled as they sound (REGULAR) and those that require the application of a rule (RULE WORDS). Students should practice fewer irregular words each lesson than regular. Both should be taught using multisensory strategies.

USE CUES AND MNEMONIC DEVICES. Facilitate recall of skills such as letter formation, letter sound associations, and rules with cues such as pictures, stories, rhymes, gestures, etc.

USE DISCOVERY TEACHING. Use discovery teaching techniques for spelling patterns and rules.

PROVIDE ERROR CORRECTION. Students should be given direct and immediate error correction for spelling errors. The ultimate goal is for the student to independently correct their own errors.

Source

For Parents

Helping Your Child With Spelling

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